Part Nine

September 1856

14th. This morning when everybody was in church and we were protected against treason to some extent, I and my son, Friedrich and the Dane started out. We were careful not to walk along the regular trail, but went alongside the eastern mountains, where only a few people lived. Several times we had to wade small streams that came from the mountains and flowed into the valley. We went around the sugar factory, which is 5 miles from the city, and around the large and small Kortenwath, and without having had any disturbances on the journey came through the village of Willekrik at 10 o'clock in the evening and joined our traveling companions. They camped at a hot spring. As we were taking a rest we lay down at some distance from the camp, so that we could make our escape, if inquiries should perhaps be made.

15th. During the night we had a violent thunderstorm and we all got wet through and through. Otherwise nothing happened to us. Even before daybreak the 3 of us continued on our journey. Again we went along the mountains, and passed by the village of Amerikasfork [American Fork] a short distance away. Today we had also many times to wade through small streams. Met some acquaintances who did not ask us, however, where we were going, and who did not learn anything from us either. Here the Salt Valley ends, and the Uta Valley begins. Towards evening we came close to the trail and waited for the wagon, which came at a late hour.

16th. The three of us again proceeded forward and always along the mountains. Here the mountains are considerably higher than in the vicinity of Salt Lake City. Today we also came upon the Uta Lake. This lake has fresh water. It is 400 miles in circumference and abounds in fish. From this the Jordan takes its rise, it being the river that flows into Salt Lake. We came past a mountain where granite was being hewn. This was being prepared for the temple, and shipped to Salt Lake City by means of a canal that has been dug expressly for this purpose. The canal is 36 miles long. The entire exterior wall of the temple is built of granite, and when the sun shines upon it, glistens like pure silver.

Today we came upon a stream that was very deep, and as we could not wade through it, we had to go to the village of Berdelkrik and from there to the city of Provo. This city is planned on a still bigger scale than Salt Lake City, and is already rather well built up. In the evening we lay down near a water mill and waited for the wagon to come. Today also our journey continued undisturbed.

17th. Today also we went forward and in the direction of the mountains. We soon came upon a broad and deep creek, however, and again had to go towards the trail. We came through the villages of Springfield and Spanishfork [Spanish Fork]. In the latter we called upon some friends, who knew about our journey and who wanted to get away in the fall themselves. During this visit the wagon went by, and we only met it again 2 miles from there. We decided to stay near the wagon, and we are no longer afraid of being pursued. We had hardly arrived at the place where we were going to camp, when 2 people on horseback came from Spanishfork [Spanish Fork] to ask the Dane, if he had paid his debt and could show a receipt. He could answer neither question in the affirmative, and they rode ahead. As far as I was concerned I expected nothing good from this encounter. Our traveling companions sought to persuade us to go forward during the night. We did not want to do that, however, and decided quietly to await the next day.

18th. Today we stayed near the wagon. We soon came to the village of Peteenet, and passed through it undisturbed. Then we came to Sumetkrik where a bishop lived. We were stopped in the center of town by him and the 2 men from Spanishfork [Spanish Fork]. The Dane had to stay behind, and had to be sent back to Salt Lake City. We were afraid this was going to happen and had therefore put his things in order in the morning. The best and greater part of them stayed on the wagon, and he took some old clothes with him. The wagon went on ahead. I stayed somewhat behind to locate an acquaintance whom I succeeded in finding. I sent him to the Dane, and had him tell him, that he should not go back, but run away during the night, if he could not get away earlier, and come back to us. I would then take care of him henceforth. I was still resting near the village, when the Dane arrived and, immediately after him, my friend. Both of them now went in the direction of the mountains and I proceeded back to the wagon. When I arrived in camp both of them had been there on horseback 2 hours previously, and had ridden on immediately. They had captured the horses in the mountains. Late at night 4 men on horseback arrived and asked us about the Dane. Nobody but myself knew how far and in what direction he had ridden. I said therefore that if they cared to overtake the Dane, they could find him at the river Chikenkrik. When they heard this, they turned back.

19th. As I was not being detained I now thought there was no reason why I and my son should go ahead, and we stayed with the wagon. We came through the village of Saltkrik and had just passed through it, when 2 men on horseback from Salt Lake City came back wanting to take me and my son back with them. I refused, got into an argument with them and some of my traveling companions rushed forward with pistols and sticks. When they saw this they begged for their lives and turned back. Late at night we came to the stream Chikenkrik where we camped. A surveyor and his crew were also camping there. I was well acquainted with him and many of his men. I had sent the Dane on to them, and now we met him here once more.

20th. We had a day of rest. From Saltkrik to this place the region is desolate and not settled. The trail is alternately good and bad, and the mountains are not very high. Here the Uta Valley ends. To the left lie the great valley of San Peter and the Ephrim Valley. The inhabitants in both of these valleys are practically all Danes.

21st. It rained all night long. I sent the Dane forward and stayed by the wagon with Friedrich. After participating in a nice farewell dinner with my friends, and after we had become half drunk, our journey continued. As far as the eye can see the region is desolate and looks like a desert. There is not a piece of cultivated land to be seen. The soil is good, but no water is available. We saw a great deal of game today. Met some Indians who were out hunting and whose horses were heavily loaded with game. Late at night we came to the Sarveriffer where we camped. This region is called the Joab Valley.

22nd. We left early. The trail led into the mountains. On a mountain we saw 3 holes about 150 feet deep, and 30 to 40 feet in diameter. On the bottom and also along the sides were large boulders. It seemed as if the earth had sunk at this place. In the afternoon we came into a small valley, called Runde Valley. It was beautiful, but was without water. Then up until nightfall we kept on driving between high mountains in a very romantic region. We camped at a place, where there was neither grass nor water, and we had to get along without drinking water all day.

23rd. We left at 4 o'clock, and had barely been going an hour, when we passed a house and obtained water. The stream that flows here, and which comes out of the mountains, is called Zendernkrik. There was something to mend on the wagon, and therefore we rested today. The mountain as well as the plain is dotted with tall cedars. Here we again met with the Dane.

24th. The trail proceeded to the left of the mountain and constantly under tall cedars. To the right was an endless plain, but it was not settled, as no water is found here. In the afternoon we came to the city of Filmore, where we camped. To this city comes once every year for a conference, the board of directors of the Mormons, some judges from the United States, as well as some chiefs of Indian Tribes, to make new laws, pronounce sentences for major crimes and to discuss other such important business. Only the court house is large and nicely built. The rest are practically all log cabins and the whole place does not look like a city at all.

25th. In order to lighten the wagon we sold at this place some of our superfluous clothes, and also such things as we had brought along for disposal. It was afternoon before we got away, and until evening we drove constantly across beautiful level land. When it began to grow dark we came to a stream called Cornkrik, where we stopped. This evening we quarreled among ourselves.

26th. We had to supply ourselves with water at this place, as there is none to be had for the first 25 miles. The trail lay constantly through the mountains, and often went across high ranges and through deep ravines. Otherwise the region was exceedingly beautiful. It was rich in game and poor in water, of which we did not find any today either. We camped in a broad mountain ravine.

27th. The trail continued through the mountains, where we came a cross 2 beautiful valleys, however. Towards noon we came upon a stream called Peintkrik, where we had to stop as there is no water to be found for the first 28 miles. Here several Mormons on their way to Salt Lake City, camped together with us. The country is still very beautiful.

28th. We amused ourselves with our comrades until midnight. Our cattle went together, and during the night both parties set out a double crew of watchmen, as cattle are often stolen in these parts. The rest of us had not been sleeping long, when the watchmen woke us up, and we heard the bellowing cattle running wildly about. We soon heard a bear, but it was very dark and therefore dangerous to go out there alone. 4 well armed men dared to do so, however, and they had not been going very far, when they heard the bear bellow in a ravine or deep hole into which it had fallen. They shot at it, and in the darkness succeeded in making a good hit, for it was soon silenced. Our comrades' wagons were drawn by mules. We had once more driven our cattle together, and wanted to go back to sleep again, when the mules once more began to run around and the oxen started to bellow ferociously. We rushed towards the cattle, and as dawn was breaking we saw standing near the hole in which the dead bear was lying, a female bear and a cub. The old bear was shot and killed immediately, while the small one was caught and tied to a tree. Our comrades took it along with them to Salt Lake City. The old one was butchered and, seated in a friendly circle, all of us enjoyed a delicious breakfast. To all of us it was indeed a celebration. We remained together until noon, and then each party went along on their own trail. The trail shortly after turned into the mountains. Here we had on our right hand a mountain wall, that hung out over the trail, and which was only 20 to 30 feet above us in some places. This kept up for a mile, and looked very forbidding. All were happy when we came through successfully. Now we came into a small forest that consisted practically of cedar trees. Here we saw many wild animals, mostly large snakes and wolves, and we also saw 2 eagles. When the sun was setting we came upon a stream, called Indienkrik, as there is much game in this region. Late at night we were visited by some Indians, who were also Mormons. We gave them something to eat, and they returned quietly to their huts. They are farmers and raise a considerable amount of cattle.

29th. Although our camping ground was very beautiful and pleasant, we nevertheless had to endure something unpleasant. There were mosquitoes here that only allowed us little sleep. The wolves too, were very daring and stole a piece of meat from underneath our wagon. Along this river grow many plants and flowers, and many a shrub grows wild here which is very valuable in Europe. Among them are also saffron and peppermint, and more than 20 different varieties of cactus of which many are in the most beautiful bloom. There is said to be some among them that only bloom every 5 years. There are also figs here, but they are not very large; olives, pepper, almonds, walnuts and many other fruits I did not know. The Indians take the most and the best of it. Of the rest the Mormons collect the seed for shipment. At this place the atmosphere is considerably warmer than I have found it anywhere else in the territory of Uta. Today the trail constantly went along between high mountains. In the afternoon we arrived at the newly constructed town of Bieberncity, where we stopped. Here the Bierben mountains begin.

30th. The journey proceeded at an early hour, as we had to travel 25 miles today before water was to be found. The trail lay in the mountains, passed incessantly across ranges and through deep ravines. Today our traveling was very dangerous. Saw many wild animals, also 3 large bears. Late at night we came upon a small spring where we camped.


1st. Now we came out upon level land that looked very much like a desert. The trail led in the direction of the mountains to the left. For several days we ate fried rabbit practically every day. Today we were fortunate in also shooting a deer. We drove across a stream called Protherkrik, and immediately afterwards through a small village of the same name. The water in the river was not red, but the mountains and the level land were quite red within a radius of at least 12 miles. We drove a few miles farther on, and came through the small city of Parowaen, the most beautiful town in the territory. It lies on an elevation close by in the mountains, and is laid out entirely in square blocks. In the center is a large, open square in which are planted fruit trees (which are still young and which do not yet bear fruit) and flowers. Close to the city is a beautiful valley with many springs. This valley is so beautifully developed and regularly laid out, and with every piece of property supplied with a fence, that it forms an exception to all the valleys I have seen so far. In this city also, all the houses are red. We drove through the town and camped an hour's journey from there, at a spring.

2nd. The trail continued along the mountains to the left. The broad plain between the mountains continued constantly, and was nothing but a desert. Towards the mountains on the right, the plain was as white as Salredy and looked, as if it was covered with a heavy layer of snow. The water in this region is very harmful for men and cattle alike, and especially for travelers who are not used to it. We saw large packs of wolves roaming over the plain. In the afternoon we came to a town called Kohlkrik, it is also called Cidercity, (Cedernstait). The city is planned on a grand scale, but up until now there are only a few houses in it, all badly built, and it does not look like a city. From Salt Lake City to this place we had an American woman in our party, who was often the cause of quarreling, as she was not well behaved. It was decided to put her and her things off here, as this was the last town. The authorities of the town were not satisfied with this. Notwithstanding we carried out our intentions, and drove along. We camped half an hour's driving from the city, close to a mountain.

3rd. Today we rested. We now had to think of putting our things properly in order, as there will be a better opportunity later on for buying and selling something. Everyone was therefore requested to lighten the wagon, sell whatever clothing or such articles he could do without, or exchange them for necessary provisions. Much had already been sold or bartered away, when our driver expressed the wish, that the party pool their resources and buy him another 2 oxen. Most of us had nor ready cash, however, or very little. I had more money than the others, and therefore the matter rested mainly with me. I would even have handed over my money, but the driver would not agree to my terms. Those who had no money at all, sided with him, and a violent quarrel arose. I, my daughter Doris and Friedrich took our things from the wagon and decided to spend the winter in Cidercity, if no other travel opportunity offered itself, or if I could not buy oxen and a wagon for myself. Another one of the party did the same. My son-in-law remained with the wagon with his wife and children. I had money enough with which to pay for 2 oxen and a wagon, and as I would rather get away than stay here, I immediately went into the city with the young man to buy a conveyance. However, when the Mormons heard that we were wanting to emigrate, none of them would sell us any, and we did not obtain any today.

Never before had I seen such dirty and ragged people among the Mormons as here, and it proved to me that here was the home of poverty and laziness. Near the city is an iron foundry. In the mountains, but quite close by the city, is much iron ore and coal, and now and then some silver and lead is found.

4th. Today we again went into town, where we found a conveyance; but we did not agree as to the price. In the evening 5 more wagons came with Mormons who camped near us. They too were on their way to California.

5th. Our former traveling companions started out today. The Dane who had gone with them returned this afternoon. Here too he had been betrayed and held back. Again he had ran away from the police, however, and come to me. I hid him until it was dark and then he returned to the wagon. Today was Sunday, and I went up into the mountains. Saw a bear, but only from a distance. I lay down at a spring in order to drink. 2 antelopes jumped over me, and I fell into the water from fright.

6th. All day we tried hard to buy oxen and a wagon, or else to find an opportunity of going with somebody, for many were also emigrating from this place. These had no room for us, however, and it was strictly forbidden for the rest to sell anything to anybody that wanted to go to California. There were nevertheless some who cared more for money and such things, than for the commands of their superiors. In the darkness these people sneaked over to us, and brought us provisions of which we soon had a sufficient supply. For practically everything we had to pay twice as much as it was worth, however. This did not strike us as strange, for we knew that this is bound up with the Mormon faith. It is continually commanded and preached to suppress and persecute all gentiles, whenever there is an opportunity to do so. They call those people gentiles who do not belong to the church, or who have withdrawn from it. Love of others is unknown to them, and they only practice it on a small scale among themselves. In the evening a man sneaked over to us and offered me a yoke of oxen for a high price. He demanded payment in money and clothing. I promised to look the oxen over in the morning. Today the 5 wagons departed, and now we were lying here in our tents in the mountains, quite by ourselves among wild people and animals. Nevertheless, it was far easier to get along with these, than with the Mormons.

7th. I had luck to buy a yoke of oxen for the price of 110 Dollars. I paid 64 Dollars in gold, and the rest in clothes, coffee, tea and such things. Today I sold still more extra supplies, and everyone I dealt with sought to cheat me. I have become acquainted with many bad people among the Mormons, and here at this place I did not meet with one good and sincere person. Today again 3 wagons arrived with Mormons who camped near us. They had taken a wrong trail into the mountain, shown them by Mormons. They had had their wagon broken, had been 3 weeks delayed, and during this time had wandered around in the wilderness. Their provisions had been consumed and partly stolen by the Indians. The Indians had also stolen 12 of their cows. They were now in just as wretched a situation as I was, although I had sufficient provisions.

I immediately let them have some of these, and saw to it that they obtained more from the money greedy Mormons.

8th. Ran about all day in order to buy a wagon or 2 wheels, so I could make a cart; but nobody would sell either of these.

9th. All night long plans were made as to the manner in which we should get away, and sleep was out of the question. Everything was in order on the 3 wagons. They were now well supplied with provisions and left around midnight. Never before had I fared so badly on my journey, but I did not lose courage on this account. All night long we had near us, and were surrounded by wolves, Indians and Mormons. The last mentioned were the worst. As dawn began to break, they tried to steal my oxen, and were just about to drive them into the mountains, when my son Friedrich discovered it just in time. We rushed forward, and soon overtook the oxen and one of the thieves. We gave him a thorough beating across the back, and then left him to his fate. When we returned an old Mormon, with whom I had formerly spoken about transportation, was standing at my tent. He had 9 wives and 34 children and the whole family went about naked near at hand. He offered me a cart, I had seen before, in exchange for clothes, and demanded 20 Dollar's worth. I, my children and also the young man forthwith gave him 20 Dollars worth of clothing. We got the cart, took it to the cart wright and blacksmith and paid still another 10 Dollars for various things. The entire cart was not worth 10 Dollars, but I would have given even 50 Dollars for it, had he demanded it, for now I had been helped over my difficulty.

10th. The cart was ready around 10 o'clock and was immediately loaded. Around noon we left this devilish place. The young man took over the driver's work, for which I promised him free provisions on the trip. The trail took us straight across the plain in the direction of the mountains on the right. We arrived at the mountains toward evening, and entered a ravine through which we were able to drive until 10 o'clock. It was very dark in the ravine, and we had to exercise the greatest care in getting through.

11th. A strong gale was blowing during the night, and it snowed and rained violently. Towards morning it was so cold that we could not stand it to remain in our tents, but had to get up as early as 4 o'clock to make a fire. We did not see any wolves, but never before did I hear so much howling as last night. We drove on at 6 o'clock. The trail, about 60 miles from Ciderecho, had only been made recently, and it was exceedingly good. We drove through a forest until noon and were at the same time in the mountains. Here the region was very romantic with beautiful views across the country. Around noon we came to a small valley. Here flowed a small stream, called Jornkrik, and here we rested for 2 hours. There are several valleys in this region where Mormons and Indians live together, and the trail is often unsafe for travel. The Mormons defame the Indians as robbers and murderers, but they are not always that. I have heard about this from truthful persons. After a short while we again came into a. valley, where 2 houses stood. Here I learned that the 3 wagons had left this place this morning. I was satisfied with my driver, oxen and cart; the trail was good and I decided to keep on driving until I overtook the three wagons. It had already been dark for some hours when we came into a valley once more, saw a fire about 2 miles ahead of us and found the others.

12th. Our camp was in an exceedingly beautiful valley, surrounded by high rocky mountains, and as there were good grass and water at this place we decided to rest today. For the past 14 days, or rather ever since we reached Cidercity, it has been very stormy and cold all the time. Sometimes during the night it froze to such an extent that ice attained a thickness of 2 inches. Today I had already been tramping 18 days in slippers, as the boots galled my feet.

13th. We drove on in the company of the three wagons. The others party numbered 16 persons. They had 10 oxen for the 3 wagons and 50 loose cows with them. Now we only drank a small amount of water, as there was always enough milk to be had. Up until now we had continually been traveling in a westerly direction. Here the trail turned more to the south, and wound its way through high mountains. At noon we came into a deep ravine. The trail was very bad. It led continually up and down mountains, and the wagons often stood almost on end. It went very well with my cart all the time; I had only a small amount of freight and good oxen. In this ravine the San Clara river takes its rise from a spring. We drove along it for 2 hours and then rested. At this river live many Indians who are, to some extent still quite savage, and who have not yet seen a white man, as they never leave their caves. They are divided into several tribes. Several travelers have already been attacked, murdered, plundered or crippled by the tribe that lives closest to the trail. We hope, nevertheless, to come through successfully, having heard in Cidercity that they have retreated 20 miles into the mountains, because the people with the 5 wagons who caught up with us in Cidercity, and who are now ahead of us, were suffering from small pox. The Indians had hear about this dangerous disease and had withdrawn.

14th. The ravine broadened and changed into a forest through which the river wound. Up until now we had not yet encountered so bad a trail as the one we had today. The journey proceeded slowly, and even when we took the greatest care we were often in danger of capsizing or getting stuck in the swamp. This ravine or valley also had its pleasant side, however. Here there were tall oaks, beeches, poplars and high grass; also a profusion of beautiful flowers; the most beautiful roses, pinks, a flower that look very much like the Chirchine, and many different varieties of cactuses of which many were in the most beautiful bloom. The most beautiful and best for us, however, were the grapevines that grew here in abundance. All day long we went about picking grapes. We camped at an early hour, as we came upon a place where Indians had lived, and from which they had now fled. Here they had apparently been raising maize and beans, and a fruit that looks like a pumpkin (In English this fruit is also called squash). The crop had been picked for the most part, but here was still enough left for our cattle to have a good supper. Here the river is 20 to 30 feet wide, and not deeper for one easily to get across. This we had to do several times during the day.

15th. We did not sleep at all peacefully during the night, as we feared there might be Indians in the neighborhood who would pay us a visit. We therefore left early and without breakfast. Just as the bad trail had ended yesterday; it began again again today. The pleasant things remained, however. We had probably been driving about 4 miles, when we again came upon a place like the one we encountered yesterday. As we found no trace of Indians and as good forage was available, we unyoked, drove the cattle together and breakfasted. We remained here for 2 hours and then went on. The trail now became better. I had stayed somewhat behind with my cart, and became not a little frightened when I came up to the other wagons and found and Indian with them who was out hunting. He asked for bread, which we gave him, and then he wanted to sell us, in exchange for clothing, a kind of nuts that grow on the pines in this region, and which the Indians call Pinenuts.

We did not want any nuts, gave him some old rags and still some more bread and tried to get rid of him. He went along with us for about 2 miles, however, and then turned into another trail. Shortly afterwards we saw 2 small children in the distance, who ran away when they caught sight of us. Then we saw an Indian standing on a mountain, and now anticipated nothing good. We had probably been driving another two miles, when all at once we heard a terrible screaming behind us, and about 40 men came running towards us. Some of them carried guns. The rest were all armed with bows and arrows. They demanded clothing, and each of us gave them some. They were not to be pacified, however, and as we would not give them any more they used force. First of all they pulled my coat off, then the shirt and finally I also had to give them my trousers. They treated each man and boy in the same way. Nothing happened to the women. When they had got the clothes, they demanded gunpowder and woolen blankets, of which they got some. In addition we had to remain quiet, and did not dare to speak to each other. I had put on another pair of pants, and also had to give them up. Thus it went all along the line. They stayed behind for a while, and we drove slowly along, all of us in our underwear. We were glad, however, that they had not taken any of our provisions. Otherwise we would have starved in this region. As it began to darken, 3 of them came running back again with various kinds of fruit which they wanted to sell for clothing. They went along with us for a short while, and when they saw that this time we seized guns and sabers, they turned back with much screaming and howling. We drove till 2 in the morning, found a spring and good grass and stayed on. Our oxen were so tired and hungry, that they had been hardly able to walk for the past 2 hours. The trail was firm and good; but we had to get across 2 high mountain ridges and drove 38 miles today.

16th. Last night was also spent without sleeping, for we still felt unsafe at all hours. All of us sat around the fire, waiting for the dawn. Our cattle needed the quiet, and as nothing disturbed us, we stayed at this place until 4 o'clock in the afternoon. First we had to drive up a steep sandy mountain, however, and the ascent kept up for a mile. The 3 wagons helped each other, and I came up with the cart myself. We drove for 3 miles up the mountain, then descended, which was even worse than the climbing. The mountain was just as steep on this side, and it was thick with stones. It was dark besides. Now we came into a valley and to a river called Railverdon. We drove along it for some miles then stopped. This river is 30 to 40 feet wide, is very deep in places and has a strong current. It takes its rise from the springs where we camped last night. This morning I counted 13 springs at this place.

17th. Our camping ground has a vineyard and a beautiful coverage of flowers. I saw cactuses from 12 to 20 feet in height in the most beautiful bloom. The flowers were of different colors and as large as a large rose. There were grapes in profusion, and we ate many of them with pleasure. Here also there grows a fruit on a small tree (similar to the gooseberry bush). The fruits were red, as large as cherries, and tasted like raisins. I maintained they were currants. Of this fruit everybody took some along for the next few days. We had a happy day in the open, but it was oppressively hot. We did not leave until 4 in the afternoon. The trail was very sandy, and we had to get across 2 rather high sandy mountains. Again we came upon a vineyard and flower garden. Here were cactuses as large as a bee hive and shaped like that. The flowers were red and blue. For some days we did not see many wolves, but in this ravine the snakes outnumbered the wolves. Today we killed 5 rattlesnakes that were about 10 feet long. I took along the rattles from 2 of them. We drove as long as we could see. Then we unyoked, intending to wait for the dawn. When we were going to yoke up the oxen had gone, and several hours passed before we found them again.

18th. It was already 10 o'clock before we drove off. The trail was often so sandy and difficult, that the oxen could hardly lift their feet out of it. We crossed the river several times, and had it alternately to the right and to the left of us. Here the mountains are not very high, and all of them are only sandy mountains. The entire region is a sandy desert, and only along the streams is anything green to be seen. In the evening the mail from Salt Lake City caught up with us. In the darkness we drove across the river once more, and were received by Indians on the other side, but they did us no harm. We camped on, the river in company with the mail carrier. The Indians at this point were very well armed. They belonged to a tribe whose colony is on the Marderkrik, and they were stationed here as scouts. Their tribe was at war with the tribe on the San Clara river. The latter had stolen 20 children from the former, and this had given rise to the war. Five years ago, when the war began, each of these tribes numbered 800 warriors, but now each had only about 150 warriors left. To such an extent have they been destroying each other, and now the women are beginning to take part in the war.

19th. We left at 12 o'clock midnight, as the mail carrier told us today we would have to travel an extremely bad trail, and go across the highest mountain on the entire route. At dawn we once more crossed the river. At this place, the river was so deep that we were in danger of being drowned. Our things in the wagons were all wet through and through. We unyoked and breakfasted. Not far from us, on the other side of the river, we caught sight of three Indians, who sat on the ground and made their guns ready to shoot. All 3 of them shot at once into a waterhole. Then we heard a scream like that of a small child, and they rushed forward to pull their booty out of the water. It was a large crocodile, and it had received all 3 shots in the eyes. Now the animal was butchered, and some pieces of meat were at once baked or roasted. When it was done, one of the Indians came swimming across the water with a large piece for us, gave it to us and then asked for a piece of bread. To begin with we would not eat the meat, but in order not to anger the Indian, we tried to eat it, and I can say that to me it tasted like a fresh piece of pork. Our visitor explained to us, that there were many crocodiles and rattle snakes in these parts, and that both made up their best food. I had seen before that rattle snakes were being eaten. In the afternoon we came close up to the high mountain, and even today 2 wagons were pulled up it. 10 oxen and 4 cows were yoked to each wagon. I took 3 hours to get up and down, and I was watching the camp during that time.

20th. As soon as the people were back and had had something to eat and drink, the 3rd wagon was taken up. Then the oxen were driven towards the river, where they roamed for a short while, and at 4 in the afternoon my cart was driven up, drawn by 8 oxen. The mountain is said to be 6000 feet high. It has 4 very steep terraces, is sandy and thickly strewn with boulders. All of us climbed the mountain, and when we came up on top, we were as tired as if we had been walking 2 days and 2 nights. When one looks down from above, one would hardly think it possible to drive up such a mountain. The many skeletons lying here amply prove that many oxen have pulled themselves to death on this mountain. We came up without mishap; but the cattle suffered much from the climb. Ever since I have been in America, I have not experienced such cold climate as on the top of the mountain. In the valley down below it was still oppressively hot, and up there, there was 2 feet of snow. There was no grass either, and although it was already late, we still had to travel some miles more. Down below and also up on the mountain, boards and posts have been stuck into the ground, and travelers have written their names on them, and the date they passed the mountain. My marker is also to be found here.

21st. On the entire journey, we had not yet had as cold a camping place as we had last night. In tents and wagons no one could stand the cold. All night long we had to lie by the fire, and even then we were freezing. As day broke, we drove on for 10 more miles, still in the mountains. Now we were driving downhill, and this was even more dangerous than the ascent. There were no terraces on this side of the mountain, but it went straight downhill. It is very steep to begin with, is filled with boulders, and is 4 miles long. As at the beginning of the rise, boards and posts have been stuck into the ground. The mail carrier from San Bernadino met us halfway over the mountain. He had 12 mules for the light wagon. of which 8 belonged to an Indian chief from whom the mail carrier always obtained these animals for a team. We came down without breaking anything of importance. Now we came out upon a difficult sandy trail, and to a stream called Marderkrik, swampy stream. We unyoked, and as our cattle had not had sufficient to eat for several days at a stretch, and as they were tired, we wanted to stay there until morning. We were hardly through unyoking, however, when close to 60 savage Indians, men, women and children surrounded us, demanding provisions, clothes and 2 cows. We tried to pacify them as well as we could, and gave them what we could do without, but they continually demanded more and finally drove 10 cows away. Now the chief appeared on the scene, and he looked just as wild as his people. We went up to him, and got our cows back after many entreaties, and after we had given him a pistol, some gunpowder and 2 knives. We yoked up immediately and drove on. We now forded the stream, where we had to supply ourselves with water, as there is nothing to be found for the first 56 miles. We drove until it got dark, came upon some grass and stopped. The territory of Uta ends at this stream. The 56 miles called the great desert, is the most northerly part of New Mexico.

22nd. We drove on at sunrise. The trail was rather good, but our cattle were hungry, thirsty and tired. Around noon we found some grass, unyoked, gave the cattle the water we had brought along, and at 6 o'clock in the evening drove on again. It became very dark. As it was cold besides, and we walked slowly, we froze considerably. During the night I saw 5 antelopes that ran a short distance ahead of us. They were as large as oxen, and large antlers and ran on at great speed. In the darkness I could not observe anything further concerning them.

23rd. We rested at 3 o'clock, and drove on at 5. The desert is very wide, and there are high mountains on both sides. As dawn was breaking we saw the fort, Los Vegas, that had recently been built by the Mormons. We arrived at it at 10 o'clock, and were glad the 56 miles had come to an end. Here was good grass and water, and we decided to remain for 2 days, so that the oxen could rest up sufficiently. The fort is a rectangular wall, about 200 feet square. Here live 30 Mormons, who have been sent out from Salt Lake City to cultivate the land and convert the Indians. These 30 Mormons have all done something wrong, and the work is given to them as a form of punishment. Near by live 800 Indian families, some members of which have already visited us today.

24th. Today we rested. In the morning we had many visits from the Indians. They were more retiring and reserved in their attitude toward us than the Mormons. In the afternoon we went to their settlement which is three miles from here. Today was one of their festival days. Another tribe, 25 miles distant, had stolen some women and children from them, and now they wanted to go to war with that tribe. They had just concluded their war preparations, and were celebrating a war festival. This consisted of shooting with guns and with bows and arrows, jumping, running, fighting with swords, throwing stones, swinging their war axes, wrestling, pulling by the hands, making bows, sharpening arrows and doing many other things. Then they danced and sang, and this amused us the most. The musicians had a kind of drum and a triangle. They sat in a tree beating lustily, singing at the same time. The people jumped, and made the queerest leaps imaginable, everyone wanting to be the most supple of the lot. In order truly to convince them of our joy, we merrily joined them in their jumping, and also sang some songs. We danced with them, and they danced with our wives and daughters, and not one of them behaved indecently. Never before have I seen such good natured Indians as these. We gave the chief and his wife (Skra) some old clothes, and, accompanied by music, we were taken to our camp by the chief, his sub-chiefs and some of their people.

25th. As we were about to yoke up, 2 of the best oxen had disappeared. After a long search, we found them at a very remote place, where they apparently had been driven by the Mormons. Today we only drove 2 hours from this place, came upon grass and water and stopped. Some Indians accompanied us, and I bought bows and arrows from them in exchange for old clothes.

26th. During the night a cow and a calf were stolen from one of my traveling companions. We looked for them far and wide, but did not find them again. For a distance of 10 miles, the trail led across the plain or desert in the direction of the mountains to the right. We drove through these mountains until after dark, came to a small spring and made camp.

Here the mountains are very high. The ravine through which we were driving was quite narrow, and frequently we could hardly see 200 paces ahead or behind, as the trail continually wound its way between high mountains. All day long the trail was sandy and full of boulders, and for this reason the journey was very slow and difficult. For the last 2 hours the oxen were so tired that we could hardly drive them forward.

Today I celebrated my 53rd birthday, on a scanty fare, it is true, but with a joyous heart and in good health, for which I devoutly thank the good Lord.

27th. When I took a good look this morning, I must say that our camping place was very beautiful. We had camped in a small valley surrounded by high mountains, and as good grass and water were to be found at this place, we rested today.

The sun first began to shine into the valley at 10 o'clock, and at 2 o'clock we were again sitting in the shade. It was also oppressively hot without the sunshine, however, even if the mountains were covered with snow.

28th. We left early and had not traveled far when 2 Indians, of those who had accompanied us in Los Vegas, overtook us, and said they had seen 2 Mormons driving the cow and calf. The 3 wagons stopped and unyoked, and 2 men went back. I drove slowly ahead. Towards evening I found water, but no grass and drove still 4 miles farther.

It was already dark when one of my traveling companions came running back to tell me, the camping place was 4 miles back on the trail.

Now I stopped. Here were neither grass nor water, and it was terribly dark besides. My driver brought the oxen back while I and my children stayed with the cart. In the middle of the night the traveler returned, bringing some water with him, of which we drank, and then we lay down.

29th. All night long it was impossible to think of going to sleep, as they wolves kept on coming close to us. Sometimes they even leaped over my driver. If I had seen this place in the daytime, I would not have ventured to stay there. It was terrible to look at. There were many traces of bears, wolves, hyenas and such wild animals. As soon as day broke, a swarm of white birds, as large as geese, constantly flew close above us and screamed worse than wolves. When I had quenched. my thirst, I went on to get the oxen. Under a rock beside the trail, I saw a cave, and heard something in it that was alive. Fear drove me quickly forward. Two of my traveling companions returned with me. We came by the cave, listened and soon found out that a bear was inside. In front of the cave were many dry plants and small bushes. We hurriedly added to this, and in a few minutes a large and bright fire was burning outside the cave. It began to be noisy inside, and it did not last long, before the gentlemen tenant let himself be seen. He could not get through the fire, however, and when he appeared the second time, both of them shot him in the head, and he collapsed with a fearful growling. We kept the fire going until the wagons came back. Saw that the head was burnt and its owner not alive anymore. We tried to pull him out in vain. He was too heavy. We did not dare to go inside either, for there were more in there that were alive. We drove on around until noon, and soon came to a plain or desert, 20 miles wide, but so long that no end was to be seen of it. To the left we now saw a high mountain, from which, as I had previously heard from the Mexicans, lead was being dug out. We camped in this desert without finding grass or water.

30th. We had hardly been going half an hour, when we found both grass and water. We stopped here till in the afternoon, and then drove ahead 16 miles across a plain, came into the mountains, and again camped without grass and water. Yesterday and today the trail was rather good. Today I saw 4 graves with the remains of emigrants, marked with their names and birthplaces. For some days we had often seen dead oxen or their skeletons, as well as broken wagons lying along the trail. As we were going to bake bread this morning, we missed a bag of flour. It was either stolen or had fallen from the wagon, and I had to buy some flour from my traveling companions. These did not have anything to spare either, but gave me some anyway, so that we would not starve. From today I envisioned a bad future for the journey. Today we drove past 18 Mormon families. We started out shortly before dawn, and had to travel over a bad trail. It was very sandy, and was constantly blocked by large boulders. Our cattle suffered much from it, and were hungry, thirsty and tired. We too had to suffer from thirst, as we neglected to take water along with us. In the afternoon we came to a small spring, where we stopped. Here was a fresh grave. The corpse was apparently that of one of the Mormons we drove past yesterday. The grave was scratched open by the wolves, and the body devoured. Only the head and clothes were left. A red silken shawl had been tied around the head, and 2 brass combs stuck into the hair. I took the shawl, as well as the combs with me. The hair was red. Otherwise they would probably also have eaten the head. Already before we came to this spot, we saw black steam rise out of the ground, and we were now about 3 miles from it. The steam came out of the earth, and came, in fact, out of the mountain and towards us in such dense clouds, that we could not breathe on account of the sulphurous odors.


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