Mormon Missionaries Parley Pratt and His Colleagues Missionary Labor in Canada In Great Britain Missionaries in Europe And in Other Parts of the World The Perpetual Emigration Fund A General Epistle of the Twelve From Liverpool to Salt Lake City for Fifty Dollars Emigrant Ships Report of a Liverpool Manager the Passage to New Orleans Overland Travel Classes of Emigrants George A. Smith's Companies at South Pass The Hand-Cart Emigration Biographical.
Of the twenty-five or thirty thousand latter-day saints gathered in the valley of the Great Salt Lake at the close of the year 1852, less than one third came from Nauvoo; nearly seven thousand proselytes had arrived from various parts of Europe, and the remainder consisted principally of converts made in the United States.1 As to the number of those who
1The pioneer band included, as we have seen, 143 members. Parley Pratt's companies, which arrived in Sept. 1847, mustered 1,540. In August 1848 the inhabitants at Salt Lake City were estimated at nearly 1,800, and there were at this date no other settlements with any considerable population. The emigrants from Winter Quarters during the autumn of this year numbered 2,393, and in 1849, 1,400. Smaller bands arrived from time to time, but with the close of the latter year the migration from Nauvoo practically came to an end. The number of Mormons from Nauvoo gathered in the valley at this date may be roughly estimated at not more than 8,000, for there were still large numbers scattered throughout the western states. According to the statistics of emigration from Great Britain and Europe, in Linforth's Route from Liverpool, 14-15, 2,877 proselytes left the United Kingdom between 1846 and 1849. This would make a total of 10,877. As the reader will remember, the entire population is stated at 11,380 in the U.S. Census Rept of 1850. Add to this number 3,714 emigrants who arrived from Great Britain and Europe between 1850 and 1852, as reported in Linforth's tables, we have a total of 15,094. The remainder were not all converts from the U.S., for there was a considerable number of persons who were not Mormons, probably 500 in all.
had been baptized into the faith in various paris of the world, and were waiting for means or opportunity to emigrate, there are no reliable data; but they probably amounted to not less than 150,000, and possibly to a larger number.
Thus within little more than twenty years the church of Jesus Christ of latter-day saints had increased from a handful to an army. And theirs was a new religion, a new revelation, not an ancient faith; they chose for their proselytizing efforts civilized rather than savage fields. In their missionary adventures no sect was ever more devoted, more self-sacrificing, or more successful. The catholic friars in their new-world excursions were not more indifferent to life, wealth, health, and comfort, not more indifferent to scorn and insult, not more filled with high courage and lofty enthusiasm, than were the Mormon elders in their old-world enterprises. In all their movements they were circumspect, moderate, studying the idiosyncrasies of the several nations in which they labored, and careful about running unnecessarily counter to their prejudices.
On reaching the scene of his labors, the missionary earned his daily bread by some trade or handicraft, not even refusing domestic service, in order to provide for his wants, and meanwhile studying the language of the people among whom he lived. Many were cast into dungeons, where they were forced to live on bread and water; many travelled on foot from district to district, with no other food than the roots which they dug near the wayside; many journeyed under the rays of a tropical sun, the water trickling from the rocks and the berries hanging from the bushes forming at times their only sustenance.2
The term of their labors had no certain limit, depending entirely on the will of the first presidency. For the more distant missions it was seldom less than two years or more than six. They must remain at
2Remy, Jour. to G. S. L. City, ii. 199.
their post until ordered home; and when recalled, they were often forced to earn by their own labor the means of crossing seas and deserts. Restored at length to their families, they were ready to set forth at a day's notice to new fields of labor; and for all this self-denial they sought no earthly reward, esteeming it as their greatest privilege thus to give proof of their unfailing devotion to the church.
One of the first Mormon missions of which we have any record was sent forth in October 1830, in which year, as will be remembered, it was ordered that Pratt, Cowdery, Whitmer, and Peterson should go and preach the gospel to the Lamanites. During their progress they labored for a season among the Wyandots in western Ohio. Thence they journeyed to Cincinnati, but meeting there with little success, proceeded to St Louis, preaching at several points on their way to large congregations. Starting forth westward early in the spring, they travelled for 300 miles through the snow, sometimes knee-deep, their food being corn bread and raw frozen pork. After a journey of 1,500 miles, occupying about four months, they reached Independence, having preached the gospel to thousands of the gentiles, baptizing and confirming many hundreds, and establishing several churches.3
3The Autobiography of Parley Parker Pratt, one of the Twelve Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, embracing his Life, Ministry, and Travels, with Extracts, in Prose and Verse, from his Miscellaneous Writings, Edited by his son Parley P. Pratt, New York, 1874, is one of the most valuable works extant on the subject of Mormon missions. The author relates in simple phrase the hardships, persecutions, and adventures which he and other missionaries encountered in various parts of the United States, and though probably he makes the most of them, there can be little doubt that so far his narrative is in the main reliable. Chosen a member of the first quorum in 1835, he was on terms of intimacy with Joseph and Hyrum Smith, Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, and others of the church dignitaries, and as the editor remarks, his history, therefore, was so interwoven with that of the church, that many of the most interesting sketches of church history will be found therein.' In the autobiography, which covers a period of twenty years, from his early boyhood to his betrayal into the hands of his enemies, of which more hereafter, is an account of his life and travels, his missionary labors, and the labors of those with whom he was associated, together with some of his miscellaneous writings in prose and verse. Other works of this author are: An Appeal to the Inhabitants of the State of New York, a pamphlet (cont.)
For twenty-five years Parley labored at intervals as a missionary in various parts of the Union,4 and in 1845 was appointed president of the churches in New England and the middle states. During his
(3cont.) of six pages calling for help and deliverance from the persecutions of the people of the United States, particularly from their enemies in Missouri; Letter to Queen Victoria is a dissertation on the fundamental principles of the faith, dated Manchester, May 22, 1841. The Fountain of Knowledge is a short essay on the scriptures. Immortality and Eternal Life of the Material Body is an attempt to prove the proposition as named. Intelligence and Affection comprises a few pages on these qualities in man, more particularly in regard to their immortality. The above five pamphlets, besides being published separately, were issued as one pamphlet at Nauvoo. The third son of Jared and Charity Pratt, Parley, was born at Burlington, Otsego co., N.Y., his ancestors being among the earliest settlers at Hartford, Conn., in 1839, and probably among the party that accompanied Thomas Hooker from Newtown, now Cambridge, Mass., in 1836. Of his conversion to Mormonism I have already spoken, and of the leading incidents in his life and the manner of his death mention is made elsewhere. One of those who set forth from Nauvoo in Feb. 1846, he was sent from Winter Quarters, as will be remembered, during the same year, on a mission to England. But for this circumstance his Autobiography would probably have included a complete and reliable account of the great Mormon exodus, and one that would have been a most valuable addition to the records of the latter-day saints. Parley was a man of many miracles and visions. In fact, with him all was miraculous; the voice of nature was the voice of God, and in one current ran revelation and human happenings. He was miraculously directed in the first instance to the book of Mormon and Joseph Smith. Myriads of false spirits were rebuked by him and driven back into the darkness. During an illness he had a dream. 'I thought I saw myself dressed in a clean and beautiful linen robe, white as snow,' on which was written the words 'holy prophet' and 'new Jerusalem.' At the elder's conference in Missouri, February 1832, he was obliged to keep his bed, as he had not yet recovered from his illness. At the close of it, he says, 'I requested the elders to lay their hands on me and pray. They did so. I was instantly healed.' Again, when detained by a severe fever, he whispered to Brother Murdock to lay hands on him unobserved while giving him water. I drank of it, he says, 'bounded on my feet, dressed myself, put on my shoes and hat, and told him I was ready to start.' Still travelling with Murdock, he was again taken ill, and again miraculously cured. While engaged in fencing and ploughing six acres for wheat, he heard a voice at night saying, Parley, Parley!' I answered, 'Here am I.' Said the voice, 'Cease splitting rails, for the Lord hath prepared you for a greater work.' He dreamed one night, during the troubles in Missouri, of an attack by enemies at a distance, and learned afterward that the vision was true. About to set out from Kirtland on a mission to Canada in April 1836, being in debt and deeply depressed, his wife sick and childless, Heber C. Kimball and other elders, filled with the spirit of prophecy, entered his house late one night and said: 'Brother Parley, thy wife shall be healed from this hour, and shall bear a son, and his name snail be Parley, and he shall be a chosen instrument in the hands of the Lord to inherit the priesthood and to walk in the steps of his father.' Instances might be multiplied. Scores of sick women and children in obedience to the command, 'In the name of Jesus Christ, be thou made whole,' arose and walked.
4In 1831 among the Delawares; in 1832 in the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri; in 1833, after the exodus from Independence, in New York; in 1835 in New England, N.Y., and Penn.; in 1837 and 1845 in N.Y. city, where in the latter year he commenced the publication of The Prophet; and in 1856 in St Louis, Phil., N.Y., and elsewhere. Autobiog., passim.
career he made several thousand proselytes, and wheresoever he set foot, seldom failed of success.
"Of all the places in which the English language is spoken," writes Parley in 1838, "I find the city of New York to be the most difficult as to access to the minds or attention of the people. From July to January we preached, advertised, printed, published,5 testified, visited, talked, prayed, and wept in vain." Elijah Fordham was with him, and for several weeks only six proselytes were made, of whom two or three sometimes met in a small upper room in an obscure street.
Sorely discouraged, the two elders invited their converts to a last prayer-meeting, intending to set forth for New Orleans. Each prayed in turn, when suddenly the room was filled with the holy spirit, and all began to prophesy and speak in tongues. "They should tarry in the city and go not thence as yet; for the Lord had many people in that city, and he had now come by the power of his holy spirit to gather them into his fold."
Among the converts was a chairmaker, named David Rogers, who now fitted up a large chamber at his own expense and invited the elders to preach. The room was crowded at the first meeting, and soon afterward the elders were ministering at fifteen different places throughout the city, all of which were crowded, sometimes preaching twice a day almost every day in the week, besides visiting from house to house.6
Mention has already been made of the labors of Brigham Young and other missionaries in various
5'My first production in that city was a book of upwards of two hundred pages, entitled the Voice of Warning. The first edition of this work consisted of four thousand copies; it has since been published and republished in America and Europe till some forty or fifty thousand copies have not been sufficient to supply the demand.' Id., 184.
6Branches of the church were formed during 1838 at Sing Sing and in New Jersey, also at Brooklyn and elsewhere on Long Island. Id., 188. In the S. L. Herald, June 16, 1877, is a sketch of the Mormon mission in New York at that date.
parts of the United States. To relate them in detail for each succeeding year would more than occupy the space alotted to this volume, and for further particulars I refer the reader to the note subjoined.7 It
7In Jan. 1838, B. Winchester left Ohio on a missionary tour, during which he preached in Md, Penn., and N.J. At this time Orson Pratt was in New York city, and L. Barnes and H. Sayers in the states of N.Y. and Penn. Times and Seasons, i. 9-11. About April 1, 1839, Jno. D. Lee and Levi Stewart started on foot from Vandalia, Ill., and, preaching as they went, passed through several towns in O., returning to their starting-point in October. During this journey they depended entirely on donations for subsistence. Lee's Mormonism, 97-108. During 1839, Lorenzo Barnes, H. Sayers, E. D. Woolly, Elisha H. Davis, J. Huston, Henry Dean, Benjamin Winchester, Jas Blakslee, and Saml James preached in O., Va, Del., Penn., N.J., and N.Y.; A. Petty, G. H. Brandon, J. D. Hunter, Benjamin Clapp, Jeremiah Mackley, Jno. E. Page, and Daniel and Norman B. Shearer, in Mo., Tenn., and Ill.; Almon Babbitt, Jacob K. Chapman, and Orson Hyde, in Ind.; Stephen Post, Julian Moses, and M. Sirrine, in Mich.; Nathan Holmes, in Mass.; and Lysander M. Davis, in S.C. Times and Seasons, i. 25-9, 39-40, 59-63, 71-4. Francis G. Bishop writes, under date Feb. 4, 1840, that since 1832, when he joined the church, he has preached in fourteen states, spending two years in Va and N. C. Jos. Smith, jr, made a visit of inspection through the middle states at this time and presided at several assemblies. Edward M. Webb, and others preached in Ill. and In; Duncan McArthur and others, in Me and N.H.; Orson Hyde, in Philadelphia and N.J.; and Geo. J. Adams, in Philadelphia, New York, and Brooklyn. Id., i. 77-80, 87-9, 108-10, 116-23, ii. 204-5, 220-1; Millennial Star, i. 274-6. In 1840-1, Elder Snyder and others established a church, baptizing about 100, in Laporte, Ind.; Richards' Rem., MS., 8-9; and in northern Ind., Ohio, Penn., and N.Y. some converts were made. Id., Narr., MS., 11-12, 16-18, 20-1. At a conference held at Phil. Oct. 17, 1840, reports were received from various churches in N.Y., N.J., and Penn., showing a membership of 896 (details given). In 1840-1, Benj. C. Elsworth, Chas Thompson, and Isaac C. Haight were preaching in N.Y.; Erastus Snow, in Penn. and R. I.; Jos. Ball, Phineas Richards, and Saml Bent, in Mass. and Conn.; Zadock Parker and P. Brown, in Vt; Norwell M. Head, Danl Tyler, and others, in Tenn. and Miss.; E. Luddington and others, in N. O.; A. J. Lumereaux, in Ohio; and J. M. Adams, Amasa Lyman, and W. O. Clark, in Ill. Times and Seasons, ii. 215-17, 219-21, 253-4, 339-40, 348-50, 384-6, 399-402, 415-16, 451-2, 468, 515-16. In 1841-3, Erastus Snow and others were in Mass.; Joshua Grant, in Va and N. C.; Jacob Gates, in Ind.; Jas Blakeslee, in N.Y.; and A. Young and Saml B. Frost, in Tenn. Id., iii. 602-6, 620, 696-7, 792-8, 820-1. In 1842-3, A. L. Lamareaux was preaching in Ind.; E. M. Webb, M. Serrine, and several others, in Mich.; Edwin D. Woolley and L. A. Shirtlift, in Mass.; Wesley Wandell, in Conn.; F. M. Edwards, in Tenn.: and R. H. Kinnamon and O. White, in Ky. Id., iv. 89, 166-7, 194-5, 226-7, 280-1, 300, 302, 354, v. 508. In 18434, G. J. Adams was preaching in Penn.; Benj. Brown and Jesse W. Crosby, in N.Yddd Alfred Hall and S. Brainan, in Ind.; Benj. L. Clapp, W. Huitt, S. Gully, and H. W. Church, in Miss.; Danl Botsford, Jos. Coon, Levi Stewart, and W. O. Clark, in Ill.; W. O. Clark, in Iowa; R. H. Kinnamon, in Va and N. C.; and P. Haws and John Brown, in Alabama. Id., v. 387-8, 444, 460-1, 468-9, 484-5, 507-8, 520-2, 702-3. In the Frontier Guardian, July 25 and Oct. 17, 1851, also in the Deseret News, Dec. 13, 1851, are further reports from missionaries in various parts of the U.S. Between the date of JosephSmith's assassination and the settlement of the saints in the valley of the Great Salt Lake, missionary work was partially suspended. For further missionary work in New York, see S. L. Herald, June 16, 1877; S. F. Alta, (cont.)
remains only to add that, throughout the Union, the Mormons were less successful in making proselytes than in some other parts of the world, especially in Great Britain and northern Europe.
In the year 1833, Orson Pratt was sent as a missionary to southern Canada, and8 about the same date Joseph Smith and Sidney Rigdon organized a church near Hamilton. In 1836, Parley Pratt, brother to Orson, being then one of the twelve, was sent to Upper Canada9 to preach and establish a church; and from this ministry it was foretold that the gospel should spread into England. With him went Brother Nickerson, who parted company at Hamilton. Left alone, knowing no one, having no money, what should he do? His destination was Toronto; fare by steamer two dollars; it would be a tedious journey on foot. He entered his closet and prayed to the Lord, then stepped out upon the street and began chatting with the people. Presently he was accosted by a stranger who asked his name, and whither he was going, and if he did not want money. Parley answered, explaining his position, whereupon the stranger gave him ten dollars, and a letter of introduction to John Taylor, a merchant of Toronto, where he arrived the same day. He was kindly received by Mr and Mrs
(7cont.) Nov. 6, 1869; in Boston, S. F. Bulletin, Aug. 16, 1870; in Washington, Deseret News, Apr. 30, 1853; in Pa, S. F. Bulletin, July 22, 1881; in Va, Juvenile Instructor, xv. 128-9; in N. C., Id., xv. 21-2; in Georgia, S. F. Bulletin, Aug. 12, 1881; in Tex., Millennial Star, xxxviii. 588-9; in the southern states generally, Juvenile Instructor, xv. 63; in Iowa, Millennial Star, xxxviii. 381; Deseret News, Aug. 8, 1877; in Ark., Millennial Star, xxxviii. 380-1; in Col., S. F. Bull., Nov. 11, 1864; in Ar., S. F. Bulletin, Apr. 12, 1873; S. F. Call, July 14, 1873; Prescott Miner, Aug. 9, 1873; Millennial Star, xxxviii. 170-1; in Cal., S. F. Herald, June 26, 1854, Feb. 9, June 4, 1855; in Or., S. F. Alta, Jan. 21, 1858; Sac. Union, Aug. 12, 1857. In 1882 there were about 110 Mormon missionaries in the United States. Contributor, iii. 128.
8Preaching in Potten, Canada, north of Vermont, the first sermon, so far as is known, that was ever delivered in the British dominions. Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 25.
9After retiring to rest on a certain evening in April 1835 he was aroused by Heber C. Kimball, who, being filled with the spirit of prophecy, said: 'Thou shalt go to Upper Canada, even to the city of Toronto, the capital, and there thou shalt find a people prepared for the fulness of the gospel. and they shall receive thee.' Pratt's Autobiog., 141-2.
Taylor, but they could give him no direct encouragement; he took tea with them, and then sought lodgings at a public house. In the morning he visited the clergymen of the place, none of whom would open to him their dwellings or places of worship. Then he applied to the sheriff for the use of the court-house, then to the authorities for a public room in the market-place, and with no better result. The prospect was dark, considering the prophecies concerning this mission. Again and again he tried with no better success. His resources were exhausted; he could do nothing more; he must depart.
He retired to a grove just outside the town and prayed. His heart was very heavy. He returned to the house of John Taylor, where he had left his handful of baggage, and bade his friends farewell. Mr Taylor was touched with pity, and held him for a moment in conversation, during which a Mrs Walton entered and began talking in an adjoining room with Mrs Taylor, who spoke of Parley's failure, saying: "He may be a man of God, and I am sorry to have him depart." The visitor was at once deeply interested. "Indeed," she said, "I feel that it is so, and that I was directed hither by the spirit of the Lord. I am a widow; but I have a spare room and bed, and food in plenty. My son will come and guide him to my house, which shall be his home; and there are two large rooms to preach in." Parley gladly accepted the offer. His labors were thenceforth attended with success. Mrs Walton soon received baptism; a friend of hers, a poor widow, was miraculously cured of blindness, and many in consequence believed.
There was a Mr Patrick, a wealthy and influential man, whose custom it was every sabbath to hold in his house a meeting, wherein were discussed questions concerning salvation, without regard to doctrine or dogma. Both John Taylor and Mrs Walton were in the habit of attending these meetings, the former frequently taking a part in the discussions. On one occasion
Parley attended, and was invited to speak, but declined, preferring to give a special call, which he did. At the appointed hour the rooms were filled; at the close of a powerful discourse another meeting was called for, and then another. Taylor became more and more interested; he once accompanied Parley into the country where he had promised to preach; at length, with Mrs Taylor, he was baptized. Thus was a shining light brought into the church, a branch of which was now established in Toronto, and was the forerunner of the mission work in Great Britain.10
During the year 1837, Heber C. Kimball and Orson Hyde, of the quorum of the twelve, accompanied by Willard Richards, were placed at the head of a mission to England, the members of which were drawn from elders of the church in Canada, and several of whom were English, or had friends in England. The elders chosen were Joseph Fielding, Isaac Russell, John Goodson, and John Snider.11 Taking ship for Liverpool, where they arrived on the 20th of July,12 apostles Kimball, Hyde, and Willard Richards landed without the means of paying for their first night's lodging; but the remainder of the party furnishing the funds, all secured apartments in the same dwelling, and two days later took coach for Preston. Here at Vauxhall Chapel, then in charge of the Rev. James Fielding, brother to Elder Fielding, the doctrines of Mormonism were first proclaimed in Great Britain, Kimball giving a brief account of the origin of the church, and of the teachings of the book of Mormon.
10After ministering at Toronto and its neighborhood for about two months, the apostle announced that he must return toKirtland, and, as he relates, on the eve of his departure several hundred dollars were placed in his hands, though he had asked no one for money, and none knew that the main reason for returning was to arrange for the payment of his debts. Parley again visited Toronto in April 1836, and labored there until spring of the following year. Id., 166. In 1841, elders Morrison and Bates were preaching near Kingston. Times and Seasons, ii. 415. About two years later, Ben. Brown and Jesse W. Crosby preached in Montreal and Quebec. Id., vi. 766-7.
11Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 26; Pratt's Autobiog., 183; Times and Seasons, iii. 879.
12On board the Garrick.
The work prospered, and within a few months about 1,500 converts were made,13 not only at Preston, but also at Manchester, Leeds, Birmingham, and as we shall see later, in Glasgow and in the south of Wales. In April 1840, when was held, at Preston, the first council of the twelve in a foreign land, Brigham Young, who arrived in England during this year,14 being elected their president, the church claimed in the British Islands nearly 2,000 proselytes,15 in April 1841 more than 6,000,16 and at the close of 1852 more than 32,000. According to a statistical report of the church throughout the United Kingdom for the half-year ending December 31, 1852, there were at that date 742 branches, 17 of the quorum of seventies, 10 high-priests, 1,913 priests, 2,752 elders, 1,446 teachers, and 856
13Smith, Rise, Progress, and Travels, 30-1. In Tullidge's Women, 246, it is stated that 2,000 were baptized within eight months. This is probably exaggerated. The first converts, nine in number, were baptized in the Ribble, July 30, 1837. Names given in Id., 241.
14On board the Patrick Hearty, together with Parley and Orson Pratt, Geo. A. Smith, Heber C. Kimball, and Reuben Hodlock. Brigham left his home in Montrose on Sept. 14, 1839. Being in feeble health, he was carried to the house of Heber C. Kimball, where he remained until the 18th, when they set forth together. Mrs Mary Ann Young was left with an infant only ten days old, and the youngest child of Mrs Kimball, who was then sick with chills and fever, was only three weeks old. Heber, who was also suffering from ague, relates that when he took leave of his family, it seemed as if his very heart would melt within him. 'This is pretty tough, is it not?' he remarked to Brigham. 'Let us rise up and give them a cheer.' They arose, and swinging their hats, cried, 'Hurrah, hurrah, hurrah for Israel!' Neither were in condition to travel, and both were almost penniless. Arriving at Kirtland, which place they visited on their way, Brigham had one New York shilling left, and Heber claims that meanwhile the necessary funds had been supplied by some heavenly messenger. The vessel sailed on the 19th of March, and reached Liverpool on the 6th of April, the tenth anniversary of the organization of the church. Brigham left the ship in company with Heber and Parley, and when he landed shouted with a loud voice, 'Hosanna!' On the next day they went to Preston by rail. Hist. B. Young, MS.; Young's Jour., in Millennial Star, xxv. 711-12; Times and Seasons, ii. 223; Whitney's Woman's Exper., MS. A parting hymn, composed by Parley a few days before the vessel sailed, will be found in Pratt's Autobiog., 332, and Times and Seasons, i. 111. On Dec. 8, 1839, elders Hiram Clark, Alex. Wright, and Sam. Mulliner had arrived at Preston, and on Jan. 13, 1840, elders Wilford Woodruff, John Taylor, and Theodore Turley. Id., iii. 884.
15In the Millennial Star, i. 20, is a list of most of the towns in which branches were established, with the number of members in each.
16In Id., i. 302, the number is given at 5,814, besides 800 who had emigrated to America during that season. These figures include the Welsh, Irish, Scotch, and Manx converts.
deacons.17 It is worthy of note that the number of members at this date was about the same as is stated in the report dated June 1, 1851,18 no interval of this length having previously occurred during which the number of proselytes was not largely increased. Meanwhile, however, the number of branches had increased by 100, and during the last half of the year 1852 more than 2,000 members had emigrated.
Manchester conference, with its starved factory operatives, heads the list with 3,282 members, and those who have visited any of the great manufacturing towns of Lancashire, where in winter men, women, and children may be seen hastening from their ill-drained hovels through the snow and slush of the dark streets to the cotton-mill, returning exhausted with toil to their supper of bread and tea, will not wonder that these hapless human beings were glad to exchange their hard lot for the plenty of the promised land. In London the number of proselytes was 2,464, in Birmingham 1,883, in Norwich 1,061, and in Liverpool 1,041. In no other town or city does the number amount to one thousand, though most of the shires of England are represented in the list of branches.
At this period the British Islands were justly termed the stronghold of Mormonism; and that Mormon missionaries made in that country a deep and abiding impression is shown by the fact that their 32,000 proselytes, nearly all of them being mechanics, laborers, or factory operatives, expended of their scant earnings nearly one dollar per capita a year for the purchase of Mormon books, periodicals, and insignia.19
17During that term 3,400 persons had been baptized, 85 had emigrated, and 234 had died. Id., xv. 78.
18A copy of which will be found in Id., xiii. 207, and in condensed form in Mackay, The Mormons, 246-7.
19In the Millennial Star, xiii. 208, it is stated that, between May 30 and June 16, 1851, £255-8-1 was received, or at the rate of about 80 cents per capita for that period. In Ibid. we have a list of £1,965-2-1 3/4 due from the various conferences for books, badges, etc.
The first number of the Millennial Star was published in May 1840, some few weeks after the arrival of Brigham Young and his party, Parley P. (cont.)
In later-years a strong reaction set in, the members of the church at the close of 1878 mustering only 2,904, the number of branches having decreased to
(19cont.) Pratt being the first editor. Issued originally as a monthly, and afterward as a bi-monthly and then as a weekly periodical, the circulation at one time teached 22,000 copies. Richards' Bibliog. of Utah, MS., 8-9. But for this publication and the Frontier Guardian, it would be impossible to fill the gap which occurs in the records of the Mormon people between Feb. 15, 1846, the date of the last issue of the Times and Seasons, and June 15, 1850, when appeared the first number of the Deseret News. For conferences at which reports were received as to the condition of the church branches at Manchester and elsewhere in 1840-1, see Millennial Star, i. 67-71, 84-9, 165-8, 301-5; Times and Seasons, ii. 404, 463; Pratt's Autobiog., 341-2, 344, 348-50; in 1842, Millennial Star, iii. 28-32; Times and Seasons, iv. 76-80; in 1843, Millennial Star, iv. 32-6, 81-5; in 1845, Id., v. 166-7; in 1846-7, Id., vii. passim. For reports of church progress, giving minor details of no particular value between 1840 and 1846, see Times and Seasons, ii. 529, 543, 557; iii. 596-9, 618, 636-7, 682-3, 789-90, 843, 924-5; Millennial Star, iv. 129-30, 145-8, 161-2, 174-5, 203-4; v. 25-6, 195; vi. 6-7, 13-14, 23-4, 28-9, 39-40, 73-5. For condensed reports showing progress during latter half of 1840 and spring of 1841, see Kidder's Mormonism, 191-200. For missionary work in different towns in 1840-1, see Millennial Star, i. 71-2, 90-3, 184-5, 212-15, 238-40, 255-6, 283-6, 305-9. With the conference of April 6, 1841, the mission of Brigham Young and his associates ended in Eng., and soon afterward they returned home, first sending an epistle to the church in Great Britain, and leaving Parley in charge. For text of epistle, see Millenial Star, i. 309-12. Brigham, Heber, O. Pratt, Woodruff, Taylor, Smith, and Richards left for New York on the ship Rochester, on Apr. 20, 1841. Young arrived in Nauvoo July 1st. Tullidge's Life of Young, 99-100. Parley remained at the head of affairs until Oct. 29, 1842, when he sailed for the U.S. on the Emerald, arriving in New Orleans early in Jan. 1843, leaving Thomas Ward to succeed him, with Lorenzo Snow and Hiram Clark as assistants. During Parley's administration, several parties of emigrants were sent to the U.S. Pratt's Autobiog., 359, 361. The Times and Seasons of Feb. 1, 1843, announces Pratt's arrival at Nauvoo. In June 1843, Elder Reuben Hadlock was appointed president of the English mission, Id., iv. 232; and again in 1846, Millennial Star, vii. 42, where the name is spelled Hedlock. Ward was associated with Hedlock in the presidency. Id., v. 140, 142. In 1846-7 Orson Hyde was president of the European mission. Richards' Narr., MS., 27. For 1879, 32 missionaries were appointed for the United States. A list is given in Millennial Star, xli. 692. Further mention of missionary work in England will be found in the pages of the Millennial Star, Frontier Guardian, Apr. 4, July 25, Sept. 19, 1849, July 24, Dec. 11, 1850, July 13, Aug. 8, 1851; Lyon's Harp of Zion, 64-6; Deseret News, Nov. 29, Dec. 27, 1851, July 24, 1852, Feb. 5. 1853, Oct. 5, 1854, July 25, 1855, Feb. 26, 1862, Sept. 9, 1863, March 9, Dec. 7, 1864, March 22, 1865, June 7, 1865, May 8, Nov. 20, 1867, March 15, 1871, July 15, 1874, June 30, 1870, Sept. 11, 1878; Utah Scraps, 5; S. F. Bulletin, June 11, Nov. 24, 1883; Sac. Union, July 2, 1855, May 14, 1869. In the autumn of 1846 John Taylor, Parley Pratt, and Orson Hyde were ordered to proceed to England, the saints being then encamped at Council Bluffs. Procuring a flat-bottomed boat, they voyaged down the Missouri River to Fort Leavenworth, where they met with some of the battalion men, and thence took the steamer for St Louis. From that city they reached England by way of New York, Parley, however, returning to Council Bluffs and Winter Quarters with money contributed by the saints in the eastern states for the assistance of their families and brethren, joining his comrades later. The missionaries visited the various churches in England, (cont.)
98, of priests to 182, of elders to 521, of teachers to 105; and of deacons to 128.20
In Wales and Scotland the Mormons were at first no less successful, the number of proselytes at the close of 1852 being in the former country nearly 5,000,21 and in the latter more than 3,000;22 but in these countries also a reaction occurred, the number of Welsh members at the close of 1878 having fallen to 325 and of Scotch to 351.23 In Ireland, as in other catholic countries, their missionaries were regarded with little favor, the converts mustering in 1852 only 245, though between 1846 and 1852 Ireland was passing through the years of her sorest tribulation, and those of her people who accepted Mormonism
(19cont.) Scotland, and Wales, and were well received. Taylor relates that the converts were in the habit of getting up tea-parties, at which he was often requested to sing, one of the songs composed by himself being 'The Upper California, O that's the land for me!' He also states that a marked feeling among the English was the desire to emigrate. Reminiscences, MS., 18-19.
20Millennial Star, xli. 110.
21Millennial Star, xv. 78. On July 6, 1840, Henry Royle and Frederick Cook were appointed to Flintshire, and on Oct. 3Oth a church of 32 members was established there. Jas Burnhaul reported front Wrexham on Dec. 23, 1840, that there were about 100 saints in that neighborhood. On Feb. 10, 1841, the 2 churches had an aggregate membership of 150. Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 26. In 1844 Elder Henshaw was in South Wales and meeting with good success. Millennial Star, iv. 203. In 1845, Strutton and Henshaw were in Wales, the latter preaching in the south the language of the country. Capt. Dan. Jones was preaching in Wrexham. Times and Seasons, vi. 988-9. Jones writes from Rhyd-y-bont, Feb. 7, 1846, that he has more places to preach in than he can possibly attend to. Millennial Star, vii. 63. For several years a periodical entitled The Udgorn Scion was published at Merthyr Tydvil, and continued until emigration greatly reduced the numbers at the Welsh mission. Richard,s' Bibliog. of Utah, MS., 9.
22Alexander Wright and Samuel Mulliner were sent to Scotland in Dec. 1839, shortly after their arrival in England. At the beginning of March, they had baptized a few converts at Paisley. Times and Seasons, i. 110; O. Pratt, in Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 26. At a general conference on Apr. 17, 1840, it was reported the Scotland branch had 3 elders and 21 members. Times and Seasons, i. 120. Elder H. Clark left Liverpool for Scotland July 27, 1840. Id., ii. 229. About May 1, 1840, Elder Orson Pratt was sent to Edinburgh. Id., ii. 91. At a conference at Glasgow April 6, 1841, the membership was 368. In 1842 Jno. MeAulcy was stationed there. In 1843, Elder Jno. Cairns was appointed to Scotland, and at the Glasgow conference of Nov. 5, 1843. the membership had increased to 768. Id., ii. 191, iv. 129-30; Times and Seasons, iv. 232. In 1845 Peter McCue was president of the Glasgow conference and Jno. Banks of the one at Edinburgh. Millennial Star, v. 182-3. In 1846 Franklin D. Richards was appointed to the presidency of the church in Scotland, assisted by his brother Samuel. Richards' Narr., MS., 27.
23Millennial Star, xli. 110.
had an opportunity, as we shall see later, of improving their condition.24
In British India,25 Ceylon, British Guiana, at the cape of Good Hope, in the West Indies,26 in Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand,27 Malta, and Gibraltar, there were also branches of the church, though in none of the British colonies were the missionaries received so cordially as in the mother country.
24On July 27, 1840, Apostle John Taylor, Elder McGaffe, and Priest Black sailed from Liverpool for Ireland, staying about a week at Newry and Lisburn. They were followed in Sept. by Elder Theodore Curtis. Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 26. On May 29, 1843, Elder Jas Sloan was appointed to Ireland. Times and Seasons, iv. 232. Mackay, The Mormons, 247, says that Mormonism was not preached in Dublin till 1850, but this statement is doubtful. In Sept. 1840 Taylor visited the Isle of Man, accompanied by Hiram Clark and one or two brethren from Liverpool. Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 26. Taylor remained but a short time, being replaced by J. Blakeslee in Nov. A church was organized at Douglas. Clark returned to Liverpool on Jan. 8, 1841, and Blakeslee on Feb. 16th, leaving a membership of 70. Times and Seasons, ii. 484; Millennial Star, iv. 147.
25Wm Donaldson sailcd from England for Calcutta early in August 1840. Times and Seasons, ii. 229. Wm Willes landed in Calcutta Dec. 25, 1851, and during his sojourn baptized some 300 natives and established a church of about 40 Europeans. Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann. 26. Jos. Richards was also in Calcutta in 1851. Id., 28. Elders Nathaniel V. Jones, Robert Skelton, Samuel A. WoolIey, Wm Fotheringham, Richard Ballantyne, Truman Leonard, Amos Milton Musser, Robert Owen, and Wm F. Carter arrived in Calcutta and held a conference in April 1853. Smith's Rise, Progress, and Travels, 34-5. For further items, see Deseret News, May 14, 1853, Jan. 5, Oct. 19, 1854, March 8, 1855; Sac. Union, May 17, 1856.
27Wm Barrett was sent to Australia from Burslem, England, by Geo. A. Smith in July 1840. Smith's Rise, Progress, and Travels, 34. In 1845 Andrew Anderson had organized a church of 9 members at Montipeer township. Times and Seasons, vi. 989. In March 1852 Jno. Murdock and Chas W. Wandell had organized a church with a membership of 36 at Sydney. Early in 1853 Augustus Farnham, Wm Hyde, Burr Frost, Josiah W. Fleming, and others landed at Sydney, and afterward extended their labors to Van Dieman's Land and New Zealand. Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 26. Smith's Rise, Progress, and Travels, 34. In August of this year Farnham published the first number of Zion's Watchman at Sydney. It was continued until Apr. 1855. Richards' Bibliog. of Utah, MS., 13. A brief account of the work in the above countries is given in Utah Pion., 26, and Smith's Rise, Progress, and Travels, 34-6. In 1852 the Australian missions were prosperous. Deseret News, May 28, 1853. In later years they were less successful. On the 6th of April, 1876, Elder Croxall writes from Sidney that the brethren are working faithfully in Australia, but meet with little encouragement Millennial Star, xxxviii. 381. In this year there were four Mormon missionaries at Christ Church, and one at Wellington, N.Z. There were also two or more at Hobart Town, Tasmania. Id., 379, 509.
In France and Germany few proselytes were made. In the former country there were, in June 1850, branches of the church at Paris, Boulogne, Calais, and Havre; but the total number of members was probably little more than a hundred.28 In Germany the Mormons were even less successful. In 1853 Elder Carn, who, two years before, had been imprisoned and afterward expelled from the confederation for preaching Mormonism, applied at Berlin for permission to hold meetings. The answer was that he must leave the city immediately under pain of transportation.29 In Holland,30 Denmark,31 Scandinavia,32
28An Elder, name not given, was in France in 1845 and baptized two. Times and Seasons, vi. 989. John Pack and Curtis E. Bolton left Salt Lake City in colnpany with Apostle Jno. Taylor, on Oct. 19, 1849, and arrived in Paris in June 1850, having been joined in England by Fred Piercy, Arthur Stayner, and Wm Howell, the last of whom had been in France before. For success, etc., see Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 27; Smith's Rise, Progress, and Travels, 32. Further information concerning the branches in France will be found in Frontier Guardian, Feb. 6, Aug. 21, 1850, June 13, Sept. 19, 1851; Deseret News, Jan. 10, Oct. 2, 1852. In 1861 a petition was presented to Napoleon III., asking for the privilege of preaching the gospel. Millennial Star, xxiii. 220-1.
30After several months' labor, a church was organized at Amsterdam, numbering 14 members. Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 28. In 1866 the Dutch mission was fairly prosperous. See letter of Elder Joseph Weiler, in Deseret News, Oct. 24, 1866. In 1877 there was 72 merebers of the church at Amsterdam. Millenial Star, xl. 91.
31Apostle Erastus Snow and three elders, appointed by Salt Lake conference of Oct. 1849, arrived at Copenhagen June 1, 1850. For results of early Danish mission, see Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 27; Smith's Rise, Progress, and Travels, 32-3; Deseret News, May 1, Dec. 11, 1852; Frontier Guardian, Sept. 18, Oct. 16, 1850, March 7, May 16, July 11, 1851, Jan. 10, Nov. 6, 1852. In 1851 the book of Mormon was translated into Danish, and later The Doctrine and Covenants. Richards' Bibliog. of Utah, MS., 11. There were in 1851, 261 converts in Denmark, of whom 150 were at Copenhagen. Frontier Guardian, Aug. 22, 1851. About 600 are claimed in Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 27. In July 1877 the first two chapters of Joseph Smith the Prophet were published in Danish, bringing his history up to the time of the first publication of the book of Mormon.
32By order of Apostle Snow, who had charge of the Scandinavian mission, Elder John Forsgren proceeded to northern Sweden in 1850, where, at Geffie, he baptized 20 persons, but was sent out of the country by the authorities. In 1851 Elder Peterson was ordered to Norway, and organized a branch at Bergen. Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 27. In 1879 the work had so greatly increased that 23 missionaries were appointed for Scandinavia. A list of them is given in Millennial Star, xli. 692-3. At the close of 1878 there were in this mission 40 branches, 467 elders, and 4,158 members of the church, 1,255 persons having been baptized during the year. Id., III. For further particulars, see (cont.)
Iceland,33 where was published The Voice of Joseph,34 in Italy, Switzerland,35 in Mexico,36 in Chili, in China, in Siam,37 in the Sandwich and Society islands,38
(32cont.) Deseret News, July 19, 1865, May 3, 1866; Juvenile Instructor, xv. 92-3; Carson State Register, June 26, 1872. Several pamphets were published in the Swedish language, and in 1853 the Scandinavien Stjerne was established at Copenhagen, which 30 years later was still the organ of the Mormon church and was well supported. Richards' Bibliog. of Utah, MS., 9.
33Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 27; Deseret News, July 21, 1875, Sept. 20, 1876.
34See letter of Francois Stoudeman, in Deseret News, Oct. 16, 1852. Lorenzo Snow, with three elders, arrived at La Tour Sept. 19, 1820. For results, see Id., 27; Millennial Star xii. 370-4; Smith's Rise, Progress, and Travels, 32; Frontier Guardian, Feb. 21, 1850. Further missionary items will be found in the Deseret News, Apr. 2, 1853, March 8, 1855, Aug. 14, 1867. The book of Mormon and other works were translated into Italian in 1852. The Voice of Joseph: A Brief Account of the Rise, Progress, and Persecutions of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; with their present position and prospects in Utah Territory, together with American Exiles' Memorial to Congress, by Lorenzo Snow, one of the Twelve Apostles, Liverpool and London, 1852, abbreviated from the Italian edition, was published for general circulation in various languages, and is a well-written historical sketch, admirably adapted to the purpose. Besides the expulsion from Missouri and Illinois, a general view of their 'location, settlements, and government in Upper California' is well presented. There is also an account of the missionary labors of the ciders in the United States, Canada, England, Wales, Scotland, and elsewhere.
35Branches of the church were established in Switzerland, under the direction of Lorenzo Snow, about the year 1850. Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 28. Soon afterward Elder T. B. H. Stenhouse published at Geneva a volume, entitled Le Reflecteur, and organized a branch of the church in the French quarter of that city. Richards' Bibliog. of Utah, MS., 11. In 1856-7 Elder Jno. L. Smith published two volumes of a monthly periodical styled Der Darsteller der heiligen der letzen tage. Other books and pamphlets innumerable were published in Switzerland and elsewhere in Europe. Richards Bibliog. of Utah, MS., 11. For further mention of the Swiss mission, see Deseret News, Sept. 21, 1854, Aug. 14, 1867, Oct. 11, 1867. At the close of 1878 there were in Switzerland 17 branches, 31 elders, and 494 members of the church, 127 baptisms being recorded during that year. Millennial Star, xli. 111.
37Smith's Rise, Progress, and Travels, 33, 35. The Chinese mission was a failure. See Deseret News, Oct. 29. Dec. 22, 1853.
38Deseret News, Nov. 29, 1851, May 1, 15, July 24, Nov. 27, 1852. In 1856 the book of Mormon was published in Hawaiian by George Q. Cannon. See Honolulu Friend. An account of Cannon's mission to the Sandwich Islands in 1853-4 is given in his work entitled My First Mission. For further missionary labors in these islands, see Deseret News, Apr. 2, July 30, Oct. 29, Dec. 15, 1853, Aug. 6, 1856, Jan. 21, Dec. 9, 1857, June l, Aug. 17, Nov. 30, 1864, June 12, 1867, Aug. 19, 1868, July 3, 1874; Millennial Star, xxxviii. 380; Contributor, v. 240; Juvenile Instructor, xv. 21. In 1844 Addison Pratt was stationed on the island of Tooboui, Society group, where he had organized a church with about a dozen members. At the same time, Noah Rogers and Benj. F. Grouard were stationed at Tahiti, but met with little success. In Oct. Rogers went to the island of Huahiae. Millennial Star, v. 178-9, vi. 5-6, (cont.)
and even in Jerusalem, was the Mormon gospel preached.39
It may be stated in general terms that the success of Mormon evangelism has been the most pronounced in countries where the climate is harsh, where wages are low, and the conditions of life severe, where there is freedom of conscience, and where there is a large class of illiterate men and women, prone to superstition and fanaticism. [Elsewhere no lasting impression has been made. Thus for many years the stronghold of Mormonism was, as we have seen, in England, while in the British colonies, where for the most part food is cheap, labor is in demand at living rates, and the people are somewhat more enlightened than in the mother country, missionaries have met with little encouragement. In Norway, Sweden, and Denmark large numbers of proselytes have also been baptized; but in central and southern Europe, with the exception perhaps of Switzerland, the results have been meagre, and accomplished with great effort. The Scandinavian and British missions, the former including Denmark, claimed, at the close of 1878, nearly 8,000 members of the church;40 and it is probable that in other parts of Europe there could not be
(38cont.) 57-60, vii. 14; Times and Seasons, vi. 812-14, 835-8, 882, 1019. These elders started in Oct. 1843, their passage being paid by P. B. Lewis as a donation to the mission. One of their number, K. F. Hanks, died on the voyage and was buried at sea. They baptized over 1,200 natives. Other missionaries at these islands were Jas S. Brown, Alva Hanks, and one Whittaker; but all were expelled by the French in 1851. Smith's Rise, Progress, and Travels, 31. See also Utah Early Records, MS., 35, 37, 84.
39Orson Hyde was appointed by a general conference held at Nauvoo Apr. 6, 1840, to a mission to the Jews in London, Amsterdam, Constantinople, and Jerusalem. He arrived in the last-mentioned city Oct. 24, 1841, and returned to Nauvoo in 1842. Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 26. By his own efforts, he raised the money for his passage, often suffering great privation during his labors, his only food at times being snails. Of Jewish descent, he stirred up his unbelieving race in the towns to which he was sent to a livelier faith in the promises of their gathering, and consecrated their land anew to their restoration, when the glory of their latter house should be greater than the glory of their former house. Richards' Utah Miscell., MS., 18. See also Smith's Rise, Progress, and Travels, 31; Millennial Star, ii. 166-9. For mission to Palestine in 1872, see Corresp. of Pal. Tourists, passim.
40A statistical report is given in Millennial Star, xli, 110-11.
found more than 2,000 or 3,000 additional members. If to these figures be added 15,000 converts distributed throughout the United States, 4,000 in British America, 3,000 in the Sandwich and Society islands, and perhaps 2,000 elsewhere in the world, we have a total of 35,000 latter-day saints scattered among the gentiles; and estimating the population of Utah at 140,000, a total of 175,000 professing the Mormon faith.41
Of the present population of Utah, about one third are of foreign birth, and at least another third of foreign parentage, converts having been gathered to Zion as speedily as the means could be furnished, from the earliest days of Mormon evangelism.
Between 1837 and 1851 about 17,000 proselytes set sail from England,42 among them a considerable percentage belonging to other nationalities. In the latter year, not more than 3,000 persons arrived in the valley of the Great Salt Lake, including converts from the United States; although at this time it was published in American and copied in European papers that proselytes by the hundred thousand were on their way. In 1852 immigration was on a somewhat larger scale.43 During a single month 352 converts
41Remy, Jour. to G. S. L. City, ii. 212-13, gives a table of the approximate number of Mormons in each country in 1859. The total is 186,000, of whom 80,000 were in Utah, 40,000 in other states and territories, 32,000 in England and Scotland, 8,000 in British America, 5,000 in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, and 7,000 in the Sandwich and Society islands. His figures are at least 20 per cent too high. The entire population of Utah, for instance, was not more than 60,000 at this date. A writer in the Hist. Mag., March 1859, p. 85, places the total at 126,000, of whom 38,000 were residents of Utah. Add 20,000 more for Utah, and we have a total of 146,000 which may be accepted approximately as the correct figures. Other estimates differ widely, the Mormons themselves, in an official statement published in the Deseret News, in 1856, claiming 480,000 members of the church in all parts of the world. See American Almanac, 1858, 338.
43Estimated by Ezra T. Benson at 10,000 souls. It was probably less than half that number. The census of 1850 places the population of the territory at a little over 11,000; the reports of the bishops of wards at the Oct. conference in 1853, as given in Richards' Hist. Incidents of Utah, MS., 39, at 18,206.
took ship from Liverpool, of whom 108 were laborers, the remainder being farmers, joiners, shoemakers, rope-makers, watch-makers, engine-makers, weavers, tailors, masons, butchers, bakers, painters, potters, dyers, iron-moulders, glass-cutters, nail-makers, basket-makers, sawyers, gun-makers, saddlers, miners, smiths, and shipwrights.44 Of the total emigration between 1850 and 1854, it was estimated that 28 per cent were laborers, 14 per cent miners, and about 27 per cent mechanics, among every two hundred being found one domestic servant, a shepherd, and a printer, and among every five hundred a schoolmaster, with here and there a university graduate, usually of no occupation, a dancing-master, a doctor, a dentist, and a retired or cashiered army officer.45 For each emigrant as he arrived was apportioned an allotment of ground, and thus all became landed proprietors; though few brought with them capital, save the ability to labor, and many had not the means wherewith to pay for their passage.
On October 6, 1849, was organized at Salt Lake City the Perpetual Emigration Fund Company, for the purpose of aiding the poor to remove from Europe and the United States.46 The company has continued
44Mayhew, The Mormons, 245; Edinburgh Review, Apr. 1854, 351. In Linforth's Route from Liverpool, 16-17, is a table showing the occupations of emigrants sent through the British agency between 1849 and 1854.
45Remy's Jour. to S. L. City, ii. 224-5.
46Utah Perpetual Emigrating Fund, MS. On Sunday Sept. 9, 1849, it was voted that a perpetual fund be instituted in aid of the poor among the latter-day saints, and that Willard Snow, John D. Lee, Lorenzo Snow, Franklin D. Richards, and John S. Fullmer be appointed a committee. At a general conference of the church, held Oct. 6th and 7th, it was ordered that the committee should raise funds for this purpose, to be placed in charge of Edward Hunter, and that the control of the funds be under the direction of the first presidency. On Sept. 15th Brigham Young was chosen president and Willard Richards was afterward appointed secretary. Utah Early Records, MS., 95, 97, 113, 114. The company was incorporated by the provisional government of the state of Deseret, Sept. 14, 1850, and the act of incorporation was made legal Oct. 4, 1851, and amended and confirmed by the same body Jan. 12, 1856. The company began rendering material aid on the 13th of March, 1850. On Sept. 3, 1852, the first company of emigrants assisted by this fund arrived at S. L. City in charge of Abraham O. Smoot. Richards' Hist. Incidents of Utah, MS., 18; Deseret News, Sept. 18, 1852; (cont.)
in operation for nearly forty years, and through it fifty thousand persons have been assisted in removing to Utah. "The fund was gotten up," says Woodruff, "on the principle of perpetual succession, to continue increasing on condition of the people acting honestly, and in accordance with their covenants repaying the amounts which had been advanced.47 The sum thus loaned was usually refunded as soon as possible, for this obligation was held sacred by most of the saints, some working out their indebtedness at the public ateliers of the tithing office, and receiving meanwhile half the value of their labor, besides being supplied with food. There were many, however, who neglected or were unable to pay the advance, the amount due to the funds increasing gradually, until, in 1880, it had reached, with interest, $1,604,000. At the jubilee conference, held in April of this year, one half of the debt was remitted in favor of the most worthy and needy of the assisted emigrants.48
On the 1st of May, 1852, Samuel W. Richards was placed in charge of the British mission, and on September 30th was appointed agent of the emigration company. During this and the following year emigration parties were organized with better system, and the benefits of the fund extended to larger numbers than during any previous period. On July 17, 1852, was published in the Millennial Star the seventh general epistle of the twelve. "Finally, brethren, fear God;
(46cont.) Utah Emigrating Fund, MS. For further particulars concerning the fund, see Snow's Voice of Joseph, 16; Frontier Guardian, Apr. 3, 1856; Deseret News, Sept. 18, 1852, Dec. l, 1853; Contributor, ii. 177; Ferris' Utah and the Mormons, 163-4; Mackay's The Mormons, 260-2; Olshausen, Mormonen, 167; Bertrand, Mem. d'un Mormon, 73-4; Hist. B. Young, MS.; Linforth's Route from Liverpool, 13; Young's Jour. of Disc., ii. 49-74; Todd's Sunset Land, 182-4
47Utah Pioneers, 1880, p. 47. In a letter to Orson Hyde, Brigham says: 'When the saints thus helped arrive here, they will give their obligations to the church to refund the amount of what they have received as soon as circumstances will admit, the funds to be appropriated as a loan rather than a gift.' Hist. B. Young, MS., 1849, 152-3. Immigrants nearly all came to Salt Lake and were distributed from this point.
48Utah Emigrating Fund, MS.; Circular from the Twelve Apostles, in Mormon Pamphlets, no. 3.
work righteousness, and come home speedily. Prepare against another season to come by tens of thousands; and think not that your way is going to be opened to come in chariots, feasting on the fat of all lands. We have been willing to live on bread and water, and many times very little bread too, for years, that we might search out and plant the saints in a goodly land. This we have accomplished, through the blessing of our heavenly father; and we now invite you to a feast of fat things, to a land that will supply all your wants with reasonable labor; therefore let all who can procure a bit of bread, and one garment on their back, be assured there is water plenty and pure by the way, and doubt no longer, but come next year to the place of gathering, and even in flocks, as doves fly to their windows before a storm."
These words were repeated by hundreds of elders throughout the United Kingdom, and no second invitation was needed. Men offered themselves by thousands, begging for passage to the land of the saints, promising to walk the entire way from St Louis to Salt Lake City, and to assist in hauling the provisions and baggage. To meet this demand, it was determined to despatch emigrants for the ensuing season at the low rate of £10 sterling per capita for the entire journey,49 including provisions, and nearly one thousand persons availed themselves of the opportunity. There were now four classes of emigrants: first, those assisted from the fund by order from Salt Lake City; second, assisted emigrants selected in Great Britain; third, the £10 emigrants; fourth, emigrants who paid all their own expenses and sent forward money to procure teams.50 The entire outlay
49Linforth's Route from Liverpool, 12. In the Millennial Star, xv. 618, is a notice that the first ship of the season would sail early in Jan. 1853. Each application must be accompanied by a statement of the name, age, occupation, and nativity of the applicant, and by a deposit of £1. Parties were to provide their own bedding and cooking utensils. Richards, Narr., MS., 32, remarks that vessels from New Orleans could be chartered at low rates, as they could seldom obtain return freight.
50At this date the price of a team, including wagon, two yoke of oxen, and two milch cows, was about £40. Linforth's Route from Liverpool, 12.
for the season's emigration was not less than £30,000. A year or two later it was found necessary to increase the minimum charge from £10 to £13, on account of the greater cost of provisions, wagons, and cattle, caused by the California emigration.
Of emigrant travel by sea and land we have interesting records. Excepting perhaps some parts of Soudan, there were, at this date, few places in the world more difficult to reach than the valley of the Great Salt Lake. After arriving at New Orleans, a journey of more than three thousand miles awaited the emigrants by way of St Louis and Council Bluffs, from which latter point they must proceed in wagons or on foot across the wilderness, travelling in this primitive fashion for three weary months before reaching their destination. Of all the thousands who set forth on this toilsome pilgrimage, few failed to reach the city of the saints, the loss of life, whether of man or beast, being very much below that which was suffered by parties bound for the gold-fields of California. While at sea, every provision was made for their health and comfort, and after reaching Council Bluffs none were allowed to start until their outfit was complete and their party fully organized.
The Liverpool manager of one of the New Orleans packet lines speaks in the highest terms of his intercourse with the Mormons during the year 1850. He states that they were generally intelligent and well behaved, and many of them highly respectable. After mentioning the vocations of the emigrants, he declares that the precautions taken for the preservation of order, decency, and cleanliness on board were admirable, and well worthy of imitation; and that from his observation of the slovenly and dirty habits of other classes of emigrants, it would not only conduce to their comfort and health, but would absolutely save the lives of many if similar regulations were introduced.51
51Mackay, The Mormons, 270-3. 'The most scrupulous cleanliness was thought to be necessary; frequent fumigation and sprinkling with lime; and (cont.)
The Mormons objected to take passage in ships which carried other emigrants; or, if they embarked in such vessels, it was always arranged that a partition should be built to separate them from the gentiles. The dietary was on a scale52 that gave to most of them better fare than that to which they had before been accustomed. Many of the vessels chartered for New Orleans were of large tonnage, some of them carrying as many as a thousand passengers. When on board, the brethren were divided into wards, each with its bishop and two councillors, who were implicitly obeyed. The centre of the ship was occupied by married couples, single men being placed in the bow and single women in the stern. Strict discipline was enforced on the voyage.53 Divine service was held each day, morning and evening, when the weather was favorable, and on Sundays an awning was spread over the main deck, and spare spars so arranged as to furnish seats. Among many of the companies were excellent choirs, which rendered the church music; and during the passage there were frequent entertainments, concerts, and dance-parties, in which the captain and officers of the ship participated.
After landing, the same organization was maintained. Remaining for a few days at New Orleans, the emigrants were conveyed in companies by steamer to St Louis, and thence proceeded to Council Bluffs.54 Here
(51cont.) on warm days all sick persons, whether willing or not, were brought into the air and sunshine.' Linforth's Route from Liverpool, 25. 'For each party were appointed watchmen (or committeemen) to see that no improprieties occurred among the people, or between our people and the sailors.' Richards' Narr., MS., 31. In 1855 the line of route was changed to Philadelphia and New York, and thence to Cincinnati. Richards' Incidents in Utah Hist., MS., 6.
52For each adult, weekly, 2 1/2 lbs bread or biscuit, 1 lb. wheat flour, 5 lbs oatmeal, 2 lbs rice, 1/2 lb. sugar, 2 oz. tea, 2 oz. salt. Three quarts of water were allowed per diem. Linforth's Route from Liverpool, 20. Twenty pounds of breadstuffs per capita and an allowance of butter and cheese were provided by the Mormon superintendent. Mackay, The Mormons, 270. Meat was often issued in lieu of meal or bread.
53All were required to be in their berths at 8 o'clock, and before 7 the beds were made and the decks swept. Mackay, The Mormons, 272.
54In the Deseret News, May 29, June 12, 1852, and the Juvenile Instructor, xiv. 143, is an account of a boiler explosion that occurred on board a steamer from St Louis, with a list of those who were killed by the accident.
they rested for a time to recruit themselves and their cattle, and those who were without funds worked for the means wherewith to continue their journey, or waited until supplied with money from the emigration fund.
When the brethren were ready to set forth for Salt Lake City, they were divided into companies of ten, fifty, and a hundred, and the order of march was the same as that adopted in 1848, during the migration from Nauvoo. For every party of ten, a wagon, two oxen, two milch cows, and a tent were provided. Each wagon was examined by one of the bishops, and none were allowed to start that did not contain the requisite quantity of provisions55 and ammunition. All who were capable of bearing arms were required to carry a rifle or musket. Any surplus means that the members might possess was invested in breadstuffs, groceries, dry goods, clothing, cattle, seeds, or implements.
Of the journey of the emigrant trains from Council Bluffs to the city of the saints, little remains to be said, as mention of this matter has been made in a previous chapter. To each emigrant as he travelled his wagon served for bedroom, parlor, and kitchen, and sometimes even as a boat in which to convey his effects over river or swamp. The average day's journey did not exceed thirteen miles, though the trains were in motion almost from sunrise until even-fall, a halt being made for the mid-day meal, and in order to give the cattle time to graze. Many of the caravans consisted of several hundred wagons, some of them drawn by six or eight oxen, and with every company went large bands of live-stock.56 The procession, as it moved
55For those assisted by the emigration fund in 1853 was supplied for each wagon 1,000 lbs of flour, 50 lbs each of sugar, rice, and bacon, 30 of beans, 20 of dried apples or peaches, 25 of salt, 5 of tea, a gallon of vinegar, and 10 bars of soap. Linforth's Route from Liverpool, 19.
56Describing one of these trains which he encountered in the valley of the Weber on Sept. 2, 1850, Capt. Stunsbury says: 'Ninety-five wagons were met to-day containing the advance of the Mormon emigration to the Valley of the Salt Lake. Two large flocks of sheep were driven before the train; and geese (cont.)
slowly along with its endless train of vehicles and its hundreds of cattle, sheep, horses, and mules, formed a picturesque and motley spectacle. Among the members of the party were to be found the New England man with his stock of trading goods, the southerner with his colored attendant, the Englishman with his box of mechanic's tools, the Dane, the Swiss, and the Scandinavian with their implements of agriculture. There were few trades and few nationalities not represented, and few professions save that of the lawyer. Among the proselytes were university graduates, physicians, ministers, army and navy officers, school-masters, merchants, storekeepers, and even pawnbrokers. Yet amidst all this heterogeneous gathering, throughout all the hardships and privations of the march, there was little strife or discord; and never did it happen, as was often the case with parties bound for the gold-fields, that a Mormon company broke up into fragments through the dissension of its members.57
Those who set forth early in the seasonnot later than the middle of Juneseldom met with any serious disaster; and it was recommended that none should leave Council Bluffs after that time of year, on account of the severe snow-storms that sometimes prevailed in the mountains during autumn. In October 1849, for instance, while crossing Rocky Ridge, near the summit of South Pass, a party in charge of George A. Smith, the prophet's cousin, encountered a storm, in which more than sixty of their cattle perished. Toward night on the 2d a strong wind set in from the north-east, accompanied with driving snow. The company encamped on a branch of the Sweetwater,
(56cont.) and turkeys had been conveyed in coops the whole distance without apparent damage The appearance of this train was good, most of the wagons having from three to five yoke of cattle, and all in fine condition. The wagons swarmed with women and children, and I estimated the train at one thousand head of cattle, 100 head of sheep, and 500 human souls.' Exped. to G. S. Lake, 223.
57For letters and news from emigrants on their way across the plains and matters concerning the organization of emigrant bands, see Frontier Guardian, Dec. 16, 1849, June 12, July 10, 24, Sept. 4, Oct. 2, 1850, Jan. 22, March 21, July 11, Aug. 8, 1851.
driving their cattle into a willow copse near by, as to build a corral was impossible. The wind freshened into a gale, and then into a hurricane, howling incessantly for thirty-six hours, and drifting the snow in every direction. For two nights women and children lay under their frail covering, exposed to the blast, with no food but a morsel of bread or biscuit. Tents and wagon-tops were blown away, and the wagons buried almost to the tops of their wheels in the snow-drifts. No fires could be lighted; little food could be had; no aid was nigh; and now, in this wintry solitude, though within a few days' march of the valley, the saints expected no other fate than to leave their bodies a prey to the wolves and the vultures.
At length the storm abated, and making their way toward the willow copse, the men found nearly half their cattle lying stiff amid the snow-banks, while others died from the effects of the storm. Not a human life was lost, however, though in this neighborhood many a grave was passed, some of friends near and dear, some of gold-seekers, whose bodies had been disinterred and half devoured by the wolves, and some of their persecutors in Illinois and Missouri, whose bones lay bleaching in the sun, a head-board with name, age, and date of decease being all that remained to mark their resting-place.58
Until the year 1856 the poorer classes of emigrants were supplied with ox-teams for the overland portion of the trip, the total cost of the journey from Liverpool, including provisions, never exceeding sixty dollars. There were thousands of converts in Europe, however,
58In a letter dated Muddy Fork930 miles from Winter QuartersOct. 18, 1849, and published in the Frontier Guardian, Dec. 26th, of that year, George A. Smith writes: 'Among others we noticed at the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains the grave of one E. Dodd, of Gallatin, Mo., died on the 19th of July last of typhus fever. The wolves had completely disinterred him. The clothes in which he had been buried lay strewed around. His under jawbone lay in the grave, with the teeth complete, the only remains discernable of him. It is believed he was the same Dodd that took an active part, and a prominent mobocrat, in the murder of the saints at Haun's Mills, Mo. If so, it is a righteous retribution.'
who were anxious to be gathered unto Zion, but could not command even this sum, and measures were now considered whereby the expense could be reduced. After much discussion, it was decided that parties should cross the plains with hand-carts, in which they were to carry their baggage, wagons being provided only for tents, extra provisions, and those who were unable to walk. Instructions to this effect were issued from Brigham Young, September 30, 1855, and in a general epistle of the twelve, dated October 29th, a circular being published in Liverpool about four months later by the presidency of the British Isles, in which the rate of passage was fixed at £9 sterling per capita.59 "The Lord, through his prophet, says of the poor, 'Let them come on foot, with hand-carts or wheelbarrows; let them gird up their loins, and walk through, and nothing shall hinder them.'"
Iowa City was selected as the point of outfit, and there the hand-carts were built. They were of somewhat primitive fashion, the shafts being about five feet long and of hickory or oak, with cross-pieces, one of them serving for handle, forming the bed of the cart, under the centre of which was a wooden axle-tree, the wheels being also of wood, with a light iron band, and the entire weight of the vehicle about sixty pounds.60 Better carts were provided in subsequent years. When the hand-cart emigrants, about thirteen hundred in number, set forth from Liverpool, they were assured that everything would be provided for them on their arrival at Iowa City; but on reaching that point many of them were delayed for weeks until the carts were built. Three companies started early in the season and made the journey without mishap.61 The next company, under Captain James G. Willie,
59The letter, epistle, and circular will be found in the Millennial Star, xvii. 812-15, xviii. 49-55, 121-3.
60Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 314. The construction of the cart will be seen in a cut facing this page.
61The first arrived Sept. 26th, and were met by the first presidency and a large number of the citizens, with an escort of cavalry and the bands of the Nauvoo legion. Deseret News, Oct. 6, 1856.
was not in motion until the middle of July, and the last that season, under Captain Edward Martin, not until the end of that month. They were divided, as usual, into hundreds, Willie's company being somewhat below that number; and for each hundred were furnished twenty hand-carts, five tents, three or four milch cows, and a wagon with three yoke of oxen to convey the provisions and tents, the quantity of clothing and bedding being limited to seventeen pounds per capita, and the freight of each cart, including cooking utensils, being about one hundred pounds.
Willie's company reached Winter Quarters, or Florence, as it was now termed, near the middle of August, and here a meeting was held to decide whether they should continue their journey or encamp for the winter. They had yet more than a thousand miles to travel, and with their utmost effort could not expect to arrive in the valley until late in November. The matter was left with the elders, all of whom, except one named Levi Savage, counselled them to go forward and trust in the Lord, who would surely protect his people. Savage declared that they should trust also to such common sense as the Lord had given them. From his certain knowledge, the company, containing as it did so large a number of the aged and infirm, of women and children, could not cross the mountains thus late in the season, without much suffering, sickness, and death. He was overruled and rebuked for want of faith. "Brethren and sisters," he replied, "what I have said I know to be true; but seeing you are to go forward, I will go with you. May God in his mercy preserve us."
The company set forth from Florence on the 18th, and on each hand-cart was now placed a ninety-eight-pound sack of flour, as the wagons could not carry the entire load. At first they travelled about fifteen miles a day, although delays were caused by the breaking of wheels and axles, the heat and aridity of the plains and mountain country speedily making many of the cart-wheels rickety, and unable to sustain their
burdens without frequent repairs. Some shod the axles of their carts with old leather, others with tin from the plates and kettles of their mess outfit; and for grease they used their allowance of bacon, and even their soap, of which they had but little. On reaching Wood River, the cattle stampeded,62 and thirty head were lost, the remainder being only sufficient to allow one yoke to each wagon. The beef cattle, milk cows, and heifers were used as draught animals, but were of little service, and it was found necessary to place another sack of flour on each hand-cart. The issue of beef was then stopped, the cows gave no milk, and the daily ration was reduced to a pound of flour, with a little rice, sugar, coffee, and bacon, an allowance which only furnished breakfast for some of the men, who fasted for the remainder of the day.
While encamped on the north fork of the Platte, the emigrants were overtaken by F. D. Richards, W. H. Kimball, G. D. Grant, and a party of elders, returning from foreign missions, who gave them what encouragement they could. "Though it might storm on their right and on their left, the Lord would keep open their way before them, and they would reach Zion in safety." After camping with them for one night, the elders went on their way, promising to leave provisions for them at Fort Laramie if possible, and to send aid from Salt Lake City. On reaching Laramie no provisions were found, and rations were again reduced, men able to work receiving twelve ounces of flour daily, women and old men nine ounces, and children from four to eight ounces.
As the emigrants travelled along the banks of the Sweetwater, the nights became severe, and their bed-covering was now insufficient. Before them were the mountains, clad almost to the base with snow, where already the storms of winter were gathering. Gradually the old and infirm began to droop, and soon deaths became frequent, the companies seldom leaving
62At this point the country was alive with buffaloes.
their camping-ground without burying one or more of the party. Then able-bodied men began to succumb, a few of them continuing to pull their carts until the day before they died, and one or two even on the day of their death. On the morning when the first snowstorm occurred, the last ration of flour was issued, and a march of sixteen miles was before them to the nearest camping-ground on the Sweetwater. The task seemed hopeless; but at noon a wagon drove up, containing Joseph A. Young and Stephen Taylor, from Salt Lake City, who told them that a train of supplies was on the way, and would reach them in a day or two. Young and Taylor immediately went on to meet Martin's company, which it was feared was even in worse plight than that of Captain Willie. Thus encouraged, the emigrants pushed forward, and by doubling their teams, while the strongest of the party helped the weak to drag along their carts, all reached the camping-ground, though some of the cattle perished, and during the night five persons died of cold and exhaustion.
In the morning the snow was a foot deep; and now there remained only two barrels of biscuit, a few pounds of sugar and dried apples, and a quarter of a sack of rice. Two of the disabled cattle were killed, their carcasses issued for beef, and on this and a small dole of biscuit the emigrants were told that they must subsist until supplies reached them, the small remnant of provisions being reserved for the young children and the sick. It was now decided to remain in camp, while Captain Willie with one of the elders went in search of the supply trains. The small allowance of beef and biscuit was consumed the first day, and on the second day more cattle were killed and eaten without biscuit. On the next day there was nothing to eat, for no more cattle could be spared, and still the supplies came not, being delayed by the same storm which the emigrants had encountered. During these three
days many died and numbers sickened, some expiring in the arms of those who were themselves almost at the point of death, mothers clasping with their dying clutch the remnants of their tattered clothing around the wan forms of their perishing infants, and, most pitiful sight of all, strong men begging for the morsel of food that had been set apart for the sick and helpless.
It was now the evening of the third day, and the sun was sinking behind the snow-clad ranges, which could be traced far to the west amid the clear, frosty atmosphere of the desert. There were many who, while they gazed on this scene, did not expect to see the light of another day, and there were many who cared no longer for life, having lost all that makes life precious. They retired to their tents, and commending themselves to their maker, lay down to rest, perchance to die. But presently a shout of joy was raised, as from an eminence near the western portion of the camp covered wagons were seen approaching, with Willie at their head. In charge of the train were Kimball and Grant, who distributed to the companies about half of their provisions, together with a quantity of warm clothing, blankets, and buffalo-robes, the remainder being sent forward under charge of Grant for the use of Martin's company, while Kimball now took command of Willie's detachment.
But the troubles of the hand-cart emigrants were not yet at an end. Some were already beyond all human aid; some had lost their reason, and around others the blackness of despair had gathered, all efforts to rouse them from their stupor being unavailing. Each day the weather grew colder, and many were frost-bitten, losing fingers, toes, or ears, one sick man who held on to the wagon-bars, to avoid jolting, having all his fingers frozen. At a camping-ground on Willow Creek, a tributary of the Sweetwater, fifteen corpses were buried, thirteen of them being
frozen to death. Near South Pass another company of the brethren met them, with supplies from Salt Lake City, and from the trees near their camp several quarters of fat beef were suspended"a picture," says Chislett, who had charge of one of the companies, "that far surpassed the paintings of the ancient masters." From this point warmer weather prevailed, and fresh teams from the valley constantly met them, distributing provisions sufficient for their needs, and then travelling eastward to meet Martin's company.
On reaching Salt Lake City on the 9th of November, it was found that sixty-seven out of a total of four hundred and twenty had died on the journey. Of the six hundred emigrants included in Martin's detachment, which arrived three weeks later, a small percentage perished, the storm which overtook Willie's party on the Sweetwater reaching them on the North Platte. There they encamped, and waited about ten days for the weather to moderate. Their rations were reduced to four ounces of flour per head per day, for a few days, until relief came. On arriving at Salt Lake, the survivors were received with the utmost kindness, arrangements being made with the bishops of wards to provide for those who had no relatives in the territory; and throughout the settlements, wherever it was known that a family had crossed the plains with the hand-cart companies, that alone was sufficient to insure for them substantial aid from the brethren.63
63My account of the hand-cart emigration is taken principally from Mr Chislett's narrative in Stenhouse's Rocky Mountain Saints, 312-338. The story as told in Stenhouse's Tell It All, 206-36, though it claims to have been written by one of the women of the party, and perhaps was so written, is merely an adaptation of the above. Another version will be found in Young's Wife No. 19, 206-21. For other mention of the hand-cart emigration, see Siskiyou Co. Affairs, MS., 18; Paddock's La Tour, 345; Deseret News, Nov. 12, 19, 30, 1856; S. L. Herald, Jan. 4, 1879; S. L. Alta, Nov. 12, 13, 1856; S. F. Bulletin, Jan. 12, 1857. In hundreds of newspapers and magazines appeared grossly exaggerated descriptions of this disaster, of which the following, taken from the Or. Statesman, June 15, 1857, may serve as a specimen: 'Of the 2,500 persons who started from the frontier, only about 200 frost-bitten, starving, and emaciated beings lived to tell the tale of their sufferings. The remaining 2,300 perished on the way of hunger, cold, and fatigue.' The emigrants (cont.)
There remains yet one more incident in the story of the hand-cart emigration. On arrival at Devil's Gate on the Sweetwater, twenty men, belonging to Martin's company, were left in charge of stock, merchandise, and baggage, with orders to follow in the spring. The snow fell deep, and many of the cattle were devoured by the wolves, while others perished from cold. The rest were slaughtered, and on their frozen carcasses the men subsisted, their small stock of flour and salt being now exhausted. Game was scarce in the neighborhood, and with their utmost care the supply of food could not hold out until spring. Two of the men, with the only horses that remained, were sent to Platte Bridge to obtain supplies; but the animals were lost, and they returned empty-handed. Presently the meat was all consumed; and then their only resource was the hides, which were cut into small pieces and soaked in hot water, after the hair had been removed. When the last hides had been eaten, nothing remained but their boot-tops and the scraps of leather around their wagons, even the neck-piece of a buffalo skin which had served as door-mat being used for food. Thus they kept themselves alive until spring, when they subsisted on thistle roots and wild garlic, until at length relief came from Salt Lake City.
Even the worst enemies of Brigham Young admit that he was in no sense to blame for this disaster, and that he spared no effort to prevent it. When tidings of the emigrants' condition arrived in Salt Lake City, he at once suspended all other business,64 and declared that nothing more should be done until every available team was sent to their relief. He himself set
(63cont.) were happy and content, until winter overtook them in the mountains, singing as they journeyed, one of their songs commencing:
'We're going to Zion with our
the chorus of another, sung to the tune of 'A little more cider:'
Hurrah for the camp of Israel!
64The October conference was then in session.
the example by sending several of his best teams laden with provisions and clothing, other large supplies being forwarded by Heber C. Kimball and the more wealthy of the elders. Each one contributed according to his means, those who had no teams furnishing apparel, bedding, and food, and this at a time when, as will presently appear, the territory was almost in a state of famine, on account of a second plague of grasshoppers.
The catastrophe was due mainly to the error in starting so late in the season from Iowa City, and to the fact that the companies did not contain a sufficient number of able-bodied men in proportion to the infirm, the women, and children.65 Moreover, the winter was one of the earliest and most severe that has ever been known in Utah. The hand-cart scheme was perfectly feasible, if carried out under proper management, as was proved by the success of the first companies, and, in the spring of 1857, by a party of seventy-four missionaries, who accomplished the trip to the Missouri in forty-eight days, or less than half the time needed when the journey was made by wagon.66
After the hand-cart disaster, and perhaps partly on account of the reports sent home by the survivors, there was a gradual diminution in the rate of emigration, though with many fluctuations. In 1876 only 1,184 proselytes were despatched from Liverpool, this being one of the smallest movements recorded. In 1877 the number increased to 1,479, and in 1878 to 1,864, but in 1879 fell off to 1,456, about 55 per cent of the emigrants for the last of these years being of
65It was from Iowa City that the late start was made. Stenhouse and others delight in making out something horrible in the hand-cart business, and the leaders no better than the vilest criminals. It was an unfortunate affair, in which the leaders suffered with the rest, but nothing further than this can be justly charged to any one. Rocky Mountain Saints, 341-2. A biographical notice of Spencer and his funeral sermon, delivered by Brigham, will be found in S. Lake Tel., Dec. 9, 10, 1868.
66Sloan's Utah Gazetteer, 1884, 26. In the Deseret News, Apr. 29, 1857, it is stated that they hoped to make the trip in 40 days.
British nationality, and 35 per cent Swedish, Norwegian, and Danish.67 In the church records, the total emigration from foreign countries, between 1840 and 1883, is stated at 78,219 souls, or an average of nearly 2,000 a year, the proselytes taking passage in companies of from 12 to 800 in 243 different vessels, all of which reached their destination in safety.68 Probably the main cause of the decrease in emigration during later years was the advance in the rate of fare, which in 1878 was fixed at £14-14, a sum for which passage could be secured to almost any portion of the world.
Between 1850 and 1856 the movement appears to have reached its culmination, proselytes being gathered by the thousand to the promised land, and thousands more preparing to follow. The elders were exhorted to "thunder the word of the almighty to the saints to arise and come to Zion."69 The brethren were commanded to shake from their feet the dust of Babylon and hasten to the holy city. "Every saint who does not come home," says the sixth general epistle of the twelve,70 "will be afflicted by the devil." "Every particle of our means that we use in Babylon," remarks Elder Erastus Snow,71 "is a loss to ourselves; and it is so much means expended upon Babylon that shall perish." "O ye poor and oppressed saints!" writes Elder Samuel Richards, "and ye rich ones too, in these lands, do not your bosoms burn with the good spirit of God, which fills his saints always with a desire to congregate together, and become a holy and
67Millennial Star, xli. 680; Deseret News, Nov. 19, 1879. There were also 90 Swiss, 34 Germans, and 8 of other nationalities.
68Though some were driven back to port, and one was dismasted on the voyage to New Orleans, Richards' Emigr. to Utah, MS., 1.
69Millennial Star, xiv. 201.
70Published July 15., 1852, in Id., xiv..20.
71At a special council, held at 23 Ratcliffe Terrace, Islington, London, on the 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th of April. An account of the proceedings will be found in Id., xiv. 209-12, 225-8, 243-7. At the close of the conference a memorial was presented to Franklin D. Richards, who was then about to return to Salt Lake City.
peculiar people? Do you not long to gather to your brethren and sisters in the heights of Zion, where sinners cannot dwell? Do you not fondly wish to assemble with the elders of Israel in the sacred resting-places of the excellent of the earth, and there inherit the earth and enjoy the bountiful blessings of a munificent creator?"
Such sayings, freely circulated among the toiling myriads of Europe, where for twelve and fifteen hours a day men worked for a wage barely sufficient to supply their needs, were not without effect. Under such conditions, a new religion, which promised to exchange the penury and drudgery of its converts for plenty and moderate labor, could not fail to receive a hearing. Moreover, the story of the prophet's assassination and of the expulsion from Illinois was yet fresh in the minds of the people. The saints were still looked upon as martyrs, and as martyrs who, having boldly launched forth into an untrodden wilderness, had at length established for themselves an abiding-place, and now stretched forth the hand of christian fellowship to the weary and heavy-laden in all the earth. Never since the founding of the sect was their cause held in more esteem; never had they dwelt together in more perfect harmony, less disturbed by outside influences, or less mindful of the events that were transpiring in the great world beyond. The years that had elapsed since their departure from Nauvoo had witnessed the rise and fall of an empire, the crash of a throne, the great revolutions in the world of science and the world of commerce. But, except so far as they seemed to fulfil the predictions of their seer, all these matters concerned them less than did the building of a sawmill or a nail-factory in the land of which their prophet had foretold: "And they who are in the north countries shall come in remembrance before the Lord, and a highway shall be made in the midst of the great deep, and in the barren deserts there shall
come forth pools of living water; and the parched ground shall no longer be a thirsty land."72
72Revelation of Joseph Smith, in Doctrine and Covenants, 327.
Among the Mormon works largely circulated throughout the British Isles and Europe was one published in 1852, and entitled The Government of God, by John Taylor, one of the Twelve Apostles of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In a preface by James Linforth, the writer states that it had been the author's intention to superintend the publication of this work, an 8vo volume of 118 pages, in person; but the cares pretaining to his missionary labors and literary work, then more urgently needed, prevented him. He therefore, on his departure for Salt Lake City in the spring of 1852, left with Mr Linforth the manuscript, the printing of which was superintended by him. As a dissertation on a general and abstract subject, it probably has not its equal in point of ability within the whole range of Mormon literature. The style is lofty and clear, and every page betokens the great learning of the author. As a student of ancient and modern history, theologian, and moral philosopher, President Taylor is justly entitled to the front rank; while his proficiency in foreign languages and his knowledge of men and of practical affairs rendered his services no less important as manager abroad than as executive officer at home.
I will here begin the biographical notices of the leading men of Utah, and of some of the pioneers, carrying the same along in the notes to the end of the volume as I have done in other cases in my historical works. The lives of some have already been fully given; and in regard to some of the others who have not yet finished playing their part in the history of the country, their biographies will be given here but partially, and finished as the work proceeds.
First after Joseph Smith and Brigham Young should be mentioned John Taylor, third president of the entire church. A native of Milnthorpe, England, where he was born in November 1808, Taylor emigrated in 1829 to Toronto, Canada, to which city his father had removed two years before. Here, joining a methodist society, he searched the scriptures earnestly, and became convinced that the churches had fallen from grace and were corrupt. With prayer and fasting he besought the Lord that if there were a true church on earth he would send a messenger to him. Shortly afterward he was visited by Parley P. Pratt, to whom he gave but a cool reception, as many evil reports concerning Mormonism were then current. But after close scrutiny, he and several of his friends believed and were baptized. In 1838 it was ordered by revelation that he should be appointed an apostle, and after the schism of that year he filled the vacancy in the quorum caused by the apostasy of John Boynton. In 1840 he arrived in England as a missionary, his labors extending to Ireland and to the Isle of Man, where he was the first to preach the doctrines of Mormonism. While on a visit to Scotland, he corrected the proof-sheets of the book of Mormon, and helped to prepare a hymn-book for the use of converts in the British Islands. He also wrote several pamphlets in reply to charges against the church. Returning to America in 1841, in company with Brigham Young, he proceeded to Nauvoo, where he was selected one of a committee to petition congress for a redress of wrongs, and presented the petition. He also purchased and took charge of the Times and Seasons, at the request of the prophet, the last three volumes being published under his direction, and was chosen a member of the city council, a regent of the university, and judge-advocate of the Nauvoo legion. He was firmly attached to the prophet, and at Carthage jail, as we have seen, almost lost his life in attempting to save him. After the expulsion he went, with others of the twelve, to Winter Quarters, where he assisted in organizing the Mormon battalion. At this juncture he was again ordered to England, in company with Parley P. Pratt and Orson Hyde, and returning the following spring, accompanied Pratt's companies to Salt Lake City. In October 1849 he was sent as a missionary to France, where he published a monthly paper, styled (cont.)
(72cont.) L'Etoile du Deseret. Before leaving Europe he translated the book of Mormon into the French language, and preached the gospel of the saints at Hamburg, where under his direction the same work was translated into German, and where he also published a monthly paper named Zion's Panier. Returning to Salt Lake City in 1852, he was elected, two years afterward, a member of the legislature, but resigning this office, went as a missionary to New York, where he superintended the affairs of the church in the eastern states, and established a journal, the first number of which appeared Feb. 17, 1855, under the title of The Mormon, the paper being discontinued in 1857, when Taylor was recalled at the outbreak of the Utah war. After that date, his labors were mainly confined to the territory, where he was partly engaged in literary work for the church, serving also for a brief term as probate judge of Utah county, and for several terms as a member of the Utah legislature and speaker of the house. In Oct. 1880 he was appointed, as we shall see later, president of the church of Jesus Christ of latter-day saints. Further details as to his early career will be found in Hist. B. Young, MS.; Woodruffs Journal, MS.; Richards' Narr., MS., and many other manuscripts and books.
George Q. Cannon, a native of Liverpool, England, was trained in the Mormon faith, his parents having been converted in 1839, when he was twelve years of age, through the preaching of John Taylor, who some time before had married his father's sister. A short time before the assassination of Joseph Smith the family arrived at Nauvoo, where George found employment as a printer in the office of the Times and Seasons and Nauvoo Neighbor. In 1847 he set out for S. L. City with Parley Pratt's companies, and for two years was engaged in farming, house-building, and other labor incidental to new settlements. In the autumn of 1849 he went to California in company with Chas C. Rich, and there worked in the gold mines until the summer of 1850, when he was sent on a mission to the Sandwich Islands. On arriving at Honolulu he began to study the Hawaiian language, which he mastered in six weeks, and then travelled and preached among the natives, organizing several branches of the church. In 1854 he returned to Salt Lake City, and the following year went as a missionary to California, where he established and edited a newspaper called the Western Standard. When news arrived of the Utah war, he again returned to the valley, and during the exodus of 1858 took charge of the press and printing materials of the Deseret News, which were conveyed to Fillmore City. In October 1859 he was chosen an apostle to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Parley Pratt, and was afterward appointed president of the European mission. In 1862 he was ordered to Washington to support the claims of Utah to admission as a state, of which more later. After the adjournment of congress he repaired to England, where he labored until August 1864, 13,000 converts being forwarded to Zion during this period. Being then summoned home, he was elected a member of the legislative council, and was for three years private secretary to Brigham Young. In 1867 he became editor and publisher of the Deseret News, which was then a semiweekly paper, and started the Deseret Evening News, which was issued daily, his connection with the latter continuing until the autumn of 1872, when he was chosen delegate to congress. In 1880 Mr Cannon was appointed first councillor to President John Taylor. For further particulars, see authorities before quoted; also Sala's America Revisited, 302; Reno Daily Gazette, Jan. 24, 1882.
Joseph F., the son of Hyrum Smith, who with his brother, the prophet, was assassinated at Carthage jail, was born at Far West, Mo., in 1838. After passing his early youth among the vicissitudes attending the expulsion from Nauvoo and the colonization of Utah, he was ordered, when 16 years of age, to proceed as a missionary to the Sandwich Islands, where he labored earnestly and with marked success. 'By the blessing of the almighty,' he writes, 'I acquired the language of the islanders, and commenced my labors, preaching, baptizing, etc., among the natives, in one hundred days after my arrival at Honolulu.' At the beginning of the Utah war he returned to S. L. City and served in the militia up to the time when Johnston's army entered (cont.)
(72cont.) the valley. In 1860 he was sent on mission work to England, where he remained till 1863, being again ordered, the following year, to the Sandwich Islands in company with A. L. Smith, L. Snow, E. T. Benson, and W. W. Cluff. Returning in 1865, he was soon after elected an apostle and a member of the legislature, in which latter capacity he served until 1872. In 1874 and 1875 he presided over the British mission, and in 1880 was chosen second councillor to President Taylor. For additional items, see above authorities.
Wilford, the third son of Aphek and Beulah Thompson Woodruff, was born at Farmington (now Avon), Conn., in March 1807, his ancestors for at least three generations being residents of that neighborhood. In 1632 he was converted to Mormonism, together with his brother Azmon, and soon afterward cast in his lot at Kirtland, where, for a time, he was the guest of Joseph Smith. Two years later he started on a missionary tour in company with an elder named Brown, journeying on foot through southern Missouri, northern Arkansas, and western Tennessee. In 1837 he was appointed a member of the first quorum of the seventies, and in April of this year, was married to Phoebe W. Carter at the house of Joseph Smith. In 1839 he was chosen an apostle, and soon afterward was sent on a mission to England, where, in a few months, he and his fellow-missionaries baptized more than 1,800 proselytes, their success being so remarkable as to alarm the orthodox clergy, who brought the matter before the notice of parliament. In 1841 he was shipwrecked at Lake Michigan while on his way to Nauvoo, but escaped with his life and reached that city in October. A few weeks before the assassination of Joseph and Hyrum Smith, he was again ordered to England as a missionary, returning in 1846, when he crossed the plains with the pioneer band. In 1848 we find him once more a missionary, this time in the eastern states, whence he returned to Salt Lake City in 1850, being elected in December of that year a senator for the provisional state of Deseret. After that date he became one of the foremost men in Utah, the church annals being largely compiled from his records. In his public career he is regarded as one of the founders of the territory; his apostolic labors have earned for him among the saints the title of 'Wilford the faithful.' Woodruff's Leaves from Journal, 1-96; Millennial Star, xxvii. passim; Times and Seasons, v. 692; Deseret News, July 7, 14, 1858.
Among the pioneers was Willard Richards, born at Hopkinton, Middlesex county, Mass., on the 24th of June, 1804. Under the instruction of his parents, Joseph and Rhoda Richards, he applied himself during his youth to the study of theology, but could not discern in the doctrines of any of the sects around him the fulness of truth. In 1835 he obtained a copy of the book of Mormon, and reading it through twice in ten days, became convinced of its divine authenticity. At this date he was practising medicine at Boston, but at once resolved to remove to Kirtland, where a year later he was baptized and ordained an elder by his cousin, Brigham Young. Proceeding on a mission to England, he labored successfully, and in April 1840 was chosen by revelation one of the twelve. Returning to America, he was appointed historian and general recorder to the church, which offices he held until his decease in March 1854. He was an intimate friend of the prophet's, and, as will be remembered, was present at his assassination in Carthage jail. In 1848, after the return of the pioneer band, he was appointed second councillor to the president. He was also editor of the Deseret News, the official organ of the church, and wrote most of the general epistles of the twelve to the brethren throughout the world. After the organization of the state of Deseret he was made secretary of state, and afterward presided over the council of the legislative assembly. The last occasion on which he left his house was for the purpose of addressing the council at the close of its session. 'I will go and perform this duty,' he said, 'if, like John Quincy Adams, I die in the attempt; but no one knows the aggravated extent of my bodily malady. Death stares me in the face, waiting for his prey.' Further particulars will be found in The Millennial ,Star, xxvii. 118-20, 133-6, 150-2, 165-6; (cont.)
(72cont.) Linforth's Route from Liverpool, 75-6; Deseret News, March 16, 1854, June 23, 30, 1858, Dec. 9, 1874; Richards' Narr., MS., 107-8.
Franklin Dewey Richards, nephew to Willard, was born at Richmond, Berkshire co., Mass., on April 2, 1821. After receiving a common-school education, he was employed at farm labor, or at his father's trade—that of carpenter. His attention was first called to Mormonism during a visit of Brigham to the house of his grandfather, Joseph Richards. On the 3d of June, 1838, he relates that after being baptized and anointed with oil, he was cured, by the efficacy of prayer, of a severe sickness. In October following, he set forth for Far West, but finding that Gen. Clark had issued an order requiring all Mormons to leave the state, he went to St Louis, where he found employment. In the spring of 1840 he attended a conference at Nauvoo, and was soon afterward sent as a missionary to Indiana, where he established a church. After some further missionary work in the United States, he repaired to Nauvoo where he married, and by great self-denial obtained the means of building a brick house in the eastern part of the city. This he sold before the expulsion for two yoke of oxen and an old wagon. In the spring of 1844 he was ordered with several others to proceed on a mission to England, but after reaching New York he heard of the assassination of the prophet, and returned to Nauvoo. In 1845 he assisted at the completion of the temple, working as a carpenter and painter. When the first bands of the saints crossed the Mississippi in Feb. 1856, Mr Richards accompanied them as far as their camping-ground on Sugar Creek, where he bade adieu to his wife and family, and soon afterward sailed for Liverpool in company with Parley P. Pratt and others. Of further incidents in his life, I shall have occasion to speak elsewhere.
Heber Chase Kimball was a native of Sheldon, Vt, where he was born in 1801. When ten years of age his family removed to West Bloomfield, N.Y., in which town he afterward worked as a blacksmith in his father's shop. In 1820, his father having lost his property, he was compelled to seek his own livelihood, and after suffering much hardship, found employment with his brother, who was a potter by trade, and removed with him to Mendon. He was converted to Mormonism by the preaching of Phiheas H. Young, and in 1832 was baptized, and soon afterward ordained an Elder. In Sept. of this year he went to Kirtland with Brigham and Joseph Young, and there met the prophet. In 1835 he was chosen a member of the first quorum of the twelve, and from that date until the expulsion from Nauvoo his time was mainly spent in missionary labors in the eastern states and in England. Returning from Salt Lake City to Winter Quarters with the main body of the pioneers, he was appointed first councillor to the president, which office he held until his decease, in June 1868. On the organization of the state of Deseret, he was elected lieutenant-governor and chief justice, and later became president of the council of the legislative assembly. A man of singular generosity, integrity, and purity of heart, there are few whose names are held in more esteem among the latter-day saints than that of President Kimball.
In March 1850 occurred the decease of Oliver Cowdery, at Richmond, Ray co., Mo. His connection with the church from its earliest days, and the part which he took in the translation of the book of Mormon, have already been mentioned. He was cut off, as we have seen, in 1838, but in 1848 was rebaptized. 'His relation of events,' remarks S. W. Richards, 'was of no ordinary character, maintaining unequivocally all those written testimonies he had furnished to the church in earlier days. Moroni, Peter, James, and John, and other heavenly messengers who had ministered to him in connection with the prophet, Joseph Smith, were familiarly but sacredly spoken of.' After his second conversion he devoted the brief remainder of his life entirely to the cause of the church, declaring his willingness to go forth among the nations and bear testimony of that which had been revealed to him—a testimony which none but he could bear. Contributor, 1884, p. 446.
In addition to the authorities already quoted on the subject of missions and immigration, I append the following: Millennial Star, i. 302, iv. 17-19, 33-6, viii. 142, ix. 244-5, x. and xi. passim, xiv. 618, xxi. 638, xxii. 18. xxiii. (cont.)
|p. 437||(72cont.) 220-1, xxiv. 510, xxv. 640, 744, 760, 807, xxix. 64, xxxvi. 666, xli. 545-680, passim; Times and Season, i. passim, ii. 273-7, iii. 593-6, 682-3, 895-6, iv. passim, v. 556, 558-9; S. L. Deseret News, 1850, Aug. 10, Oct. 5, Dec. 14; 1851, Mar. 22, June 14, Nov. 15, 29, Dec. 13, 27, 1852, passim; 1853, Feb. 5, 19, Mar. 19, May 14, July 9, Oct. 29, Dec. 1, 8; 1854, Jan. 5, Mar. 2, May 11, June 22, Aug. 10, Sept. 21, Oct. 5; 1855, Jan. 4, Feb. 22, Apr. 4, May 9, July 25, Oct. 17, Dec. 19; 1856, Feb. 27, Apr. 16, May 14, June 4, July 2, Aug. 6, Oct. 8; 1857, Jan. 21, Mar. 18, Apr. 15, May 13, Aug. 26, Dec. 9, 23; 1858, May 19, June 9, July 7, Oct. 27; 1859, Mar. 30, May 11, June 29, Aug. 3, Sept. 21; 1860, May 30, June 13, July 4, Aug. 15, Oct. 24, Nov. 21; 1861, Jan. 2, Mar. 6, Apr. 3, May 15, Sept. 11; 1862, Feb. 26, July 2, Sept. 17; 1863, Mar. 18, May 6, July 15, Sept. 16; 1864, Mar. 9, June 1, Aug. 17, Oct. 19, Nov. 30, Dec. 7; 1865, Mar. 22, June 7, July 12, Oct. 12; 1866, Mar. 8, Apr. 12, May 3, Aug. 30, Oct. 3, 24; 1867, Jan. 23, Feb. 13, May 8, June 12, Aug. 7, Dec. 25; 1868, Feb. 12, July 1, Aug. 19, Dec. 23; 1869, Feb. 10, Apr, 28, June 2, Sept. 29, Oct. 13; 1870, Jan. 26, June 8, Aug. 10; 1871, Mar. 15, June 14; 1872, Jan. 24, Mar. 6, June 12, July 31; 1873, Feb. 12, Aug. 27, Oct. 15, Nov. 19; 1874, Feb. 4, July 3, 15; 1875, Feb. 3, June 30, July 21, Oct. 20; 1876, Feb. 2, July 19, Sept. 20, Oct. 11, Nov. 29; 1877, Feb. 14, Apr. 11, July 4, Aug. 8, Sept. 26; 1868, Mar. 13, Sept. 11, Nov. 13; 1879, Mar. 12, Sept. 10, Nov. 19; Taylor's Remin., MS., 18-19; Woodruff's Pion. Incid., MS., 1; Utah Early Records, MS., passim; Richard's Bibliog. Utah, MS., 8-14; Richards' Ear. Emig. to Utah, MS., 1-2; Cooke's Theatr. and Soc. Aff. in Utah, MS., 10-11; Hyde's Autobiog., MS., 2; Never's Nev. Pion., MS., 1-2; Richards' Incidents in Utah Hist., MS., 82; Kanesville (Iowa) Frontier Guardian, 1849-51, passim; 1852, Jan. 9; Linforth's Route from Lirerpool, 1-22, 81-108, 117-20; Hall's Mormonism Exposed, 103-5; Smith' s Rise, Progress, and Travels, etc., 31, 33-7; Pratt (O.), in Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., 27-8; Id., in Millennial Star, x. 244-5; Id., Series of Pamphlets, no. 7, 1-16; Pratt's (P. P.) Autobiog., 348-62, 383, 398, 414-26, 428-55, 458-65; Utah Pamphlets, Religions, no. 1, 9-14; Utah, Perpetual Emigrating Fund, MS., passim; Honolulu (H. I.) Friend, iv. 133, 151; Olshausen's Mormonen, 165-7, 192; Busch's Gesch. Mormonen, 320-36; Bertrand's Mem. Mormonen, 73-4, 284-90; Richards' Narrative, MS., 30-8; Richards' (Mrs) Reminiscences, MS., 34-5; Snow (Lorenzo), in Millennial Star, xii. 370-4; Mackay's The Mormons, 116, 246-7, 260-75; Smucker's Hist. of Mormons, 302-3; Stenhouse's (Mrs T. B. H.) Exposé of Polygamy, 19-25, 27-32; Id., Tell It All, 91, 101-2, 105-6, 118-19, 171-96, 216-18; Gunnison, The Mormons, 64-7, 143-4; Burton, City of the Saints, 5-7, 169-70, 275-9, 359-66; Beadle's Life in Utah, 159-67, 233-70, 527-32; Ferris' Utah and the Mormons, 38-9, 163-4, 178, 318-22; Waite (Mrs C. V.), The Mormon Prophet, etc., 144-52; Kidder's Mormonism, etc., 200; Smucker's Hist. of Mormons, 131, 297-302, 438-9; Tucker, Mormonism, 168, 213-21, 277; Utah Scraps, 5, 13, 17; Lyon's Harp of Zion, 17-19, 41-2, 64-6; Snow (Eliza), Poems, i. 219, 260-70; Rae's Westward by Rail, 118—43; S. L. City Contributor, ii. 59-61, 147-8, 177, iii. 128; Ferris' (Mrs G. B.) The Mormons at Home, 69-70, 163, 172-215; Robinson's Sinners and Saints, 167, 181, 196-205; Hedlock (R.), in Millennial Star, v. 154-5; Utah Pioneers, 33d Ann., passim; Juvenile Inst., xiv. 143, xv. 21-129, passim; Young (Ann Eliza), Wife No. 19, 166-80; Remy and Rrenchley, Journey to (G. S. L. City, it. 194-226, 314-15; Sac., Placer Times, Aug. 1, 1849; Lee (Jno. .D.), Morm. Unveiled, 97-108; Vetromile, A Tour, etc., 71-2; Amer. Almanac, 1857, 338; 1858, 338; McClure, Three Thousand Miles, etc., 184-6; U.S. Bur. of Statis., no. 2, 179-80, 188; Coyher's Letters, it. passim; Todd's Sunset Land, 182-4; Spencer (0.), in Taylor's Govt of God, passim; Circular from the Twelve, etc., 1, 3; Young's Jour. of Disc., ii. 49-74; A String of Pearls, passim; Spencer's Labors in the Vineyard, 9-61; Kimball's Gems for Young Folks, 26-9; U.S. Comr Ind. Aff. Rept, 1856, 229-30; 1871, 173, 188, 191-2; Utah, Jour. Legis., 1854-5, 102-3; Acts, 1855-6, 38-41; 1866, 111-12; Marshall's Through Amer., 225-7; Hist. Mag., iii. 85; Hyde's Mormon., 191-2; Stat. Rept Stakes of Zion, MS., passim; Nor. Amer. Rev., xcv. 191-2; Dall's First Holiday, 99-104; Bowles' Our New West, 211-12; Life among the Mormons, 159-73; (cont.)|
|p. 438||(72cont.) Jonveaux, L'Amerique, 242-3; Carvalho's Incid. of Travel, 144-5; Huber's Round the World, 100-5; Comettant's Civ. Inconnues, 20-5; Bonwick's Morm. and Silver Mines, 106; Codman's Round Trip, 274; Paddock's Fate of Mme. La Tour, 350-2; Ward's Husband in Utah, 36, 111-23, 278; Corres. Palestine Tourists, passim; S. L. Herald, 1877, June 16; 1878, Oct. 31; 1879, Mar. 22, Apr. 2, Aug. 10, Nov. 13; 1880, Feb. 6, June 17; Telegragh, 1868, Aug. 5, 17, 18, Sept. 15, 25; Tribune, 1876, Apr. 29; 1877, June 2, 6, Aug. 31, Oct. 25, Nov. 2; S. F. Alta, 1854, Mar. 10, Apr. 27; 1856, Nov. 17, Dec. 9; 1857, May 15, June 14, Sept. 7, Oct. 13; 1858, Jan. 6, 21, Apr. 13, May 29, June 13, 27, Aug. 3, 10; 1863, July 6; 1867, June 25; 1868, Aug. 4; 1869, May 14, Nov. 6; 1870, Oct. 9; 1873, Sept. 21; 1878, July 1; Bulletin, 1856, July 31; 1857, May 15, Oct. 21; 1861, Oct. 3; 1863, June 29, July 9, 11, Aug. 6; 1864, Aug. 22, Nov. 11; 1865, July 29; 1866, May 14; 1867, Sept. 13; 1868, May 25; 1870, Aug. 16; 1872, June 13, Nov. 20; 1873, Apr. 12; 1877, June 15, July 17; 1881, May 4, July 8, 22, Aug. 12, Nov. 3; 1883, June 11, July 2, Sept. 5, Nov. 14, 24; Call, 1863, Dec. 1; 1864, July 8, 23; 1865, Feb. 21, June 21, July 13; 1867, Feb. 15, Mar. 31; 1868, July 14, Sept. 5; 1869, Aug. 21; 1870, Oct. 6; 1871, Oct. 6; 1872, May 2; 1873, July 14; 1875; Chronicle, 1879, Aug. 6, 20; 1884, June 22; Examiner, 1878, July 22; Gold. Era, 1865, June 18, July 25; Herald, 1850, Aug. 1; 1851, July 25; 1852, June 4; 1853, Feb. 12; 1854, June 26, Aug. 6; 1855, Feb. 9, June 4; Pac. Churchman, 1868, Nov. 5; 1870, Nov. 24; Post, 1876, June 3; Times, 1867, July 16; 1868, Aug. 6, 14, Sept. 2; 1869, Apr. 8, 13, July 3, Sept. 17; Sac. Union, 1855, July 2, Sept. 20; 1856, May 17, June 24; 1857, June 26, July 1, 14, 15, Aug. 1, 12, Sept. 21, Oct. 5, Nov. 5; 1858, Mar. 15; 1859, June 21, Nov. 2; 1860, Sept. 24, Oct. 6; 1861, Aug. 22, May 17; 1867, Aug. 5; S. José Mercury, Aug. 31, 1871; Prescott (Ariz.) Miner, 1873, Aug. 9; 1879, Apr. 4; Roseburg (Or.) Plaindealer, Aug. 2, 1879; Astoria Astortan, Oct. 12, 1878; Or. City Argus, Sept. 1, 1855; Salem (Or.)Statesman, 1854, Sept. 26; 1856, Dec. 2; 1857, Sept. 15, 29, Nov. 3; 1858, Jan. 5; Helena (Mont.) Republican, Sept. 6, 1866; Olympia (Wash.) Standard, Oct. 25, 1862; Gold Hill (Nev.) News, 1863, Oct. 28; 1866, Mar. 3; 1878, Oct. 30; 1880, June 15; 1881, July 14; Austin Reese Riv. Revell., Sept. 8, 1867; Carson State Regis., 1871, Mar. 30; 1872, June 26; Eureka Sentinel, 1878, Jan. 13.|
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